A further 34 ships which should have been included were delayed due to congestion at New York; they sailed the following day as HX 229A. It can also be used in non-military sense, for example when driving through remote areas. Also en route from Hvalfjord, in Iceland, were the destroyers HMS Vimy and USS Babbitt, for HX 229, and the US Coast Guard cutter USCGC Ingham for SC 122. These were dispatched on the morning of 18 March, and arrived the following day. HX 229 gradually advances on another convoy, a slow convoy, SC 112, which left from New York. It sailed on 5 March 1943, protected at first by one destroyer and five corvettes of the Western Local Escort Force. However, they had failed to interrupt the North Atlantic convoy route to any extent; 68 ships (two-thirds of those involved) made a safe and timely arrival, and the 38 ships of HX 229A, which had been detached at New York to cross separately, arrived unscathed. Buy Convoy: The Battle For Convoys Sc.122 And Hx.229 First Edition by Martin Middlebrook (ISBN: 9780713909272) from Amazon's Book Store. The Critical Convoy Battles of March 1943Rohwer, Jürgen, Geleitzugschlachten im März 1943Rohwer, Jürgen. How to transfigure the Wikipedia . Approximate convoy routes are shown in a red line. HX 229A sailed on 9 March, meeting its ocean escort, 40 Escort Group, on 15 March. Luther had recently joined the group and this was only his second crossing. J Dalison in HMS Aberdeen. The Convoy: 60 ships: First sighting: On 10 Mar 1943 by U-336: Escorts: The British escort group A3 consisting of the British destroyers Harvester (Cdr Tait) and Escapade, the Polish destroyers Garland and Burza, the British corvettes Narcissus and Orchis and the Free French corvettes Aconit, Renoncule and Roselys. Read more about them. This allowed them to position wolf packs in the way of HX 229, which was following a similar course. As an Amazon Associate uboat.net earns a commission from qualifying purchases. 22 merchant ships were sunk (13 from HX 229 and 9 from SC 122), a loss of 146,000 tons. The Allied Ultra intelligence, which decrypted German messages enciphered using the Enigma machine and which had helped the Admiralty to divert convoys away from wolf packs, had been "blinded" on 10 March 1943 as the result of the Germans bringing in a new short weather report. The convoy, made up of contingents from Halifax, Sydney and Bermuda was led by Commodore HH Rogers RNR in Tregarthen. Convoys HX 229/SC 122 order of battle From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is the … HMS Highlander joined that afternoon, a welcome addition as B4 was by this time reduced to five ships. That's it. This comprised six sloop-type warships under Cdr. Kriegsmarine tactics against convoys employed multiple-submarine wolfpack tactics in nearly simultaneous surface attacks at night. Uboats Deployed in Gruppe Raubgraf: (9) Type VIIC, (8 Players) U-89, U-91,U-435,U-600,U-603 U-615,U-653,U … The battle around convoys HX 229 and SC 122 occurred during March 1943 in the Battle of the Atlantic, and was the largest convoy battle of World War II. B5 Escort Group consisted of eight warships, led by Commander RC Boyle in the destroyer HMS Havelock, the destroyer USS Upshur, the River-class frigate HMS Swale, the Flower-class corvettes Buttercup, Godetia, Lavender, Pimpernel and Saxifrage, and a trawler as rescue vessel. Meet The Squander Bug. More than 300 merchant seaman died. Slower vessels were routed in the SC series … The local escort groups met on 23 March, and HX 229, with 27 ships surviving, arrived at Liverpool on 23 March. The first couple of days were uneventful but on the morning of March 16th, U-653 sighted HX 229, and sent a sighting report to U-boat Command. HX Convoys From September 1939 until September 1942, the HX series carried traffic from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Liverpool. SC 122 was also able to resist further attacks until evening. Lieutenant Commander Gordon John Luther leads the escort group protecting HX 229 as it crosses 2,500 miles of ocean. During the Battle of the Atlantic, British merchant shipping was formed into convoys for protection against German submarine attack. [1] In March 1943 convoys HX 229 and SC 122 were the focus of the largest convoy battle of the war. [4] A Royal Navy report later concluded "The Germans never came so near to disrupting communications between the New World and the Old as in the first 20 days of March 1943".[5]. Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. SC 122, with 42 remaining ships, arrived later the same day. ADM 199/2189 - Convoy Lists. Had the convoy link between North America and Britain been broken, the course of World War II would have been different. HX 229 was also eastbound and sailed from New York on 8 March, with 40 ships and the local escort. Arriving on 18 March, Day, as a senior and more experienced officer, took command of B4 Group for the rest of the engagement. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}50°38′00″N 34°46′00″W / 50.6333°N 34.7667°W / 50.6333; -34.7667, Convoy during naval battles of the Second World War, "Volume III German Naval Communications Intelligence, Chapter 4, Section 2", "Volume III German Naval Communications Intelligence, Chapter 4, Section 4", "LLOYD'S REGISTER, NAVIRES A VAPEUR ET A MOTEURS", http://uboat.net/ops/convoys/convoys.php?convoy=HX-229, http://uboat.net/ops/convoys/convoys.php?convoy=SC-122, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Convoys_HX_229/SC_122&oldid=991423089, Naval battles of World War II involving Canada, Naval battles of World War II involving the United Kingdom, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, d/c by aircraft x4; forced to break off and return to base, d/c Liberator /86 Sqdn (17th); dc, damage by, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 00:10. These two convoys were the … On the afternoon of 18 March, U-221 succeeded in sinking two ships of HX 229 but further losses were avoided. The other ships of B4 were the destroyers HMS Beverley, Mansfield and Witherington and the corvette Anemone, although Witherington had to detach on 15 March, to be replaced by the corvette Pennywort for the crossing. Had the convoy link between North America and Britain been broken, the course of World War II would have been different. At this time, convoys SC.122 (slow) and HX.229 (fast) set out from New York, with a third HX.229A split off due to the sheer number of freighters and tankers: 141 ships carrying 920,000 tons of vital cargo (fuel, meat and other food, timber, minerals, steel, gunpowder, lorries, locomotives, invasion barges, aircraft, tanks...) and 1,000 passengers. X-ray (11,682 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article An X-ray, or X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. As it was, there was a period during the winter of 1942-43 when the Germans came close to cutting the North Atlantic lifeline. The convoy pressed on, changing escorts on 13 March off Cape Race. Convoy the battle for Convoy SC.122 and HX.229. Read more about them. HX 229 Convoy HX 229 departed New York on 8 March 1943 and arrived at Liverpool on 23. You can order records in advance to be ready for you when you visit Kew. means the ship was damaged. Kriegsmarine tactics against convoys employed multiple-submarine wolfpack tactics in nearly simultaneous surface attacks at night. The battle was undoubtedly a success for the Germans. Three ships were sunk and another five on the morning of 17 March, a total of eight in just 8 hours. On 6 March, off Cape Cod, two ships put back to New York due to heavy weather, and on 8 March, another six abandoned the crossing, and put into Halifax. ISBN 1 85367 352 8; Paul Kemp : U-Boats Destroyed ( 1997) ISBN 1 85409 515 3; External links. They were east-bound convoys and originated in Halifax, Nova Scotia from where they sailed to ports in the United Kingdom. The double battle had involved 90 merchant ships and 16 escort ships (though not all were present at the same time). HX 228 Was one of several convoys attacked sequentially in March 1943. As it was, there was a period during the winter of 1942-43 when the… Convoy HX 229. Ordering and viewing options This record has not been digitised and cannot be downloaded. * U-boats that fired torpedo or used the deck gun. When the offensive renewed in May, it saw a major defeat for the U-boat Arm, and the turning point of the campaign. A further 34 ships which should have been included were delayed due to congestion at New York; they sailed the following day as HX 229A. Dönitz immediately ordered Raubgraf to pursue and intercept, while Stürmer and Dränger were ordered west to form a line ahead of the convoy. HX 229 was also joined by the corvette HMS Abelia, detached from another convoy. During the night of 18/19 March the two convoys were running in tandem, though sailing independently. Raubgraf - Convoy HX 229. ISBN (Canada) 1 55125 033 0 .ISBN(UK) 1 86176 147 3; Axel Neistle : German U-Boat Losses during World War II (1998). Also on 19 March U-384 was attacked by air patrol to the north of SC 122 and sunk. HX 229. To install click the Add extension button. It passed through Raubgraf's rake in the night of 15/16 March without being sighted because of bad weather. During the rest of the day, boats from Stürmer began to arrive. HX 229 was also eastbound and sailed from New York on 8 March, with 40 ships and the local escort. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. Had the convoy link between North America and Britain been broken, the course of World War II would have been different. The escorts chased 3 contacts during the night but with no result. HX 229 was also eastbound, and sailed from New York on 8 March, with 40 ships and the local escort. [3] One hundred merchant ships in trade convoys HX 229 and SC 122 encountered three wolfpacks of 38 submarines in a single sprawling action, which German radio reported as "the greatest convoy battle of all time" (Die grösste Geleitzugschlacht aller Zeiten). U-338 sank the freighter Granville, of SC 122 in the evening, surviving a fierce counter-attack by escorts, and after midnight U-305 sank two more ships (Port Auckland and Zouave). Martin Middlebrook's Convoy is a classic in the Battle of Atlantic. The first few days of the convoy were uneventful; HX 229 met its Mid-Ocean Escort Force on 14 March and the local escort departed. Taking a more northerly route than HX 229, the convoy remained undetected by German patrol lines and made a safe and timely landfall on 26 March. On the morning of 16 March U-653, which had detached from Raubgraf to return to base with mechanical problems, sighted HX 229 heading east and sent a sighting report. Background. Ships hit from convoy HX-229 77 convoys on route HX were hit by U-boats in the war. Two more ships from HX 229 were lost during the day. In total, 38 U-boats had taken part (though throughout the battle not all had been in contact). This is the order of battle during the battle around convoys HX 229 and SC 122 from 16 to 20 March 1943.Allied forcesConvoy HX 229* Abraham Lincoln (flag), Antar * Belgian Gulf * Canadian Star, Cape Breton, City of Agra, Clan Matheson,… There were no further losses to the convoys that day; faced with stiffening resistance and sensing nothing further would be achieved without disproportionate losses, Dönitz called off the assault. This was the largest convoy battle of the Atlantic campaign. A fifth, Fort Cedar Lake, was damaged, to be sunk later in the day. It was led on this occasion by Commander GJ L… He combines a statistical, chronological history with excellent mixture of oral histories of the participants of the event. Often, a convoy is organized with armed protection. Attacked in March 1943, this action, which converged with the action around SC 122, was the largest convoy battle of the Atlantic campaign. In the first twenty days of March, 1943, the Germans sank ninety-seven Allied merchant ships – twice the rate of replacement. Convoy: The Battle for Convoys SC.122 and HX.229 by Middlebrook, Martin at AbeBooks.co.uk - ISBN 10: 0140046135 - ISBN 13: 9780140046137 - Penguin - 1978 - Softcover With just five warships to protect 40 ships, the escort group has limited capability. The first few days of the convoy were uneventful; HX 229 met its Mid-Ocean Escort Force on 14 March and the local escort departed. The North Atlantic winters offered the longest periods of darkness to conceal surfaced submarine operations. [7] Also during March nine U-boats were destroyed in the Atlantic, and more were damaged, leading to a hiatus in U-boat operations during April. Departed New York City on March 9-1943 and arrived Liverpool on the 26th. convoy hx 229 1943. convoy sc 122 1943. On 19 March the escorts were reinforced by the arrival of Vimy and Babitt, for HX 229, and Ingham for SC 122. The battle around convoys HX 229 and SC 122 occurred during March 1943 in the Battle of the Atlantic, and was the largest convoy battle of World War II.British merchant shipping was formed into convoys for protection against German submarine attack. Contact: Large Convoy Sighted Merchants (37), Escorts (8) Estimated Course: ENE Estimated Speed: 8 knots WX: winds 9kt, overcast. The U-Boat tracking room at the Admiralty Operational Intelligence Centre was therefore unable to divert convoys around the U-Boat packs. In the first twenty days of March, 1943, the Germans sank ninety-seven Allied merchant ships twice the rate of replacement. The first convoy, HX-1, was a 15-ship group that departed Halifax on 16 Sep 39 (Canada’s Declaration of War occurred in parliament on 09 Sep and was given Royal Ascent by the Governor General a day later). Help was on its way in the form of the destroyer HMS Highlander, under Commander ECL Day. As it was, there was a period during the winter of 1942-43 when the Germans came close to cutting the North Atlantic lifeline. HX 229 at … The HX convoys were a series of North Atlantic convoys which ran during the Battle of the Atlantic in the Second World War. During March, there was a series of fierce convoy battles which became, for the Allies, the crisis point of the whole campaign. HX 229 was also eastbound, and sailed from New York on 8 March, with 40 ships and the local escort. The two convoys he chronicles are SC-122 and HX-229. Convoy escorted by B-4 Group CDR ECL Day RN. Raubgraf caught up with HX 229 on the evening of 16 March and mounted an attack that night. They absorbed the BHX convoys from Bermuda en route. Two U-boats were destroyed while sinking four merchant ships and the escort commander's destroyer. All attacks on both convoys were repelled this night, and six firm contacts were attacked but little damage was inflicted. During the same … One ship from HX 229 was lost, a romper which broke away to proceed independently; this ship, Matthew Luckenbach, ran into the melée around SC 122 and was torpedoed, to be sunk later on 19 March. (Described at item level). The ocean escort was B4 Escort Group from St John's, of four destroyers and a corvette. The Raubgraf operation in mid-March of HX 229 and SC 122, "the greatest success yet achieved against a convoy," was probably assisted in large part by a compromised diversion dispatch, sent in the world-wide table of combined cipher. 77 convoys on route HX were hit by U-boats in the war. A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10 picometers to 10 . Title: Robber Baron (Convoy HX-229) Historical: Yes (Search Convoy HX-229) Date: March, 18 1943, 19:00 Wolfpack (Gruppe): Raubgraf Location: North Atlantic. Additional notes by Arnold Hague and co-workers for convoy HX.229A: WLE(S) 24.18.4 SOE USS COWIE, WLE(N) 24.18.1 SOE ST CLAIR, OCEAN 40EG SOE ABERDEEN, ICELAND ESCORT USS BIBB: NOTE REINFORCED WLE(S), NORANDA REMAINED WITH WLE(N) FROM WLE(S) & ESCORTED LADY RODNEY FROM 14.3 TO ST JOHN'S NF: ABERDEEN SUFFERED ICE DAMAGE 19.3.43 : COMMODORE: Capt D A … (This was during the period when SC convoys were switched from Sydney, Cape Breton, to New York; this was reversed later due to congestion problems there.) Related content. … A straggler from SC 122, Clarissa Radcliffe, was also sunk with all hands by U-663. It was led on this occasion by Commander GJ L… The first few days of the convoy were uneventful; HX 229 met its Mid-Ocean Escort Force on the 14th and the local escort departed. The first few days of the convoy were uneventful; HX 229 met its Mid-Ocean Escort Force on 14 March and the local escort departed. 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