Faulting along the Sistan suture zone of eastern Iran. Haiti has been the locus of a number of large and damaging historical earthquakes. . We know the release of a 240-year buildup of stress caused the catastrophic 7.0 earthquake that killed some 230,000 people in Haiti and destroyed much of the capital city of Port-au-Prince. In an interview, Kenneth Merten, the United States Ambassador to Haiti, stated that the US justice system would not interfere and that "the Haitian justice system will do what it has to do. [76] The clothing industry, which accounts for two-thirds of Haiti's exports,[77] reported structural damage at manufacturing facilities. The preferred model requires slip on three faults, to recreate the principal geodetic and seismologic features of, The broad uplift bulge north of the EPGF across the Léogâne, fan delta (Fig. Engineers have stated that it is unlikely many buildings would have stood through any kind of disaster. Delays in aid distribution led to angry appeals from aid workers and survivors, and looting and sporadic violence were observed. [130] Partners in Health (PIH), the largest health care provider in rural Haiti, was able to provide some emergency care from its ten hospitals and clinics, all of which were outside the capital and undamaged. Most of these aftershocks have occurred to the West of the mainshock in the Mirogoane Lakes region and its distribution suggests that the length of the rupture was around 70 km. A 7.0-magnitude earthquake, the largest ever recorded in the area, left much of the Port-au-Prince, Haiti, area in despair in January 2010. Credit: American Red Cross/AP Haiti 2010: Bodies in streets In short, the deformation pattern caused by the January 12 earthquake is not consistent with it occurring on the Enriquillo Fault. [26] Haiti is no stranger to natural disasters. January 20: While multiple aftershocks are recorded soon after the initial quake, the U.S. Geological Service reports the strongest aftershock is a 5.9 temblor on January 20 that collapses many already damaged buildings. [243][244], Several organizations of the US building industry and government, such as the Department of Homeland Security and the International Code Council, among others, reported that they were compiling a "Haiti Toolkit" coordinated by the National Institute of Building Sciences. Preliminary!Reconnaissance!Report! The cores contain evidence of multiple palaeo-washover deposits that are readily distinguished by their sedimentology, geochemistry and microfossil assemblages. [86] In the heat and humidity, corpses buried in rubble began to decompose and smell. Other nations from farther afield also sent personnel, medicines, materiel, and other aid to Haiti. "[109] Edmond Mulet, UN Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, said, "I do not think we will ever know what the death toll is from this earthquake",[109] while the director of the Haitian Red Cross, Jean-Pierre Guiteau, noted that his organization had not had the time to count bodies, as their focus had been on the treatment of survivors. which is inconsistent with simple left-lateral slip on the EPGF and, a further indication of source complexity. We interpret four major coral emergence events as coseismic uplifts uiat occurred near the epicenters and times of large shallow earthquakes on January 5, 1946 (MS=7.3), August 11, 1965 (MS=7.5), October 27, 1971 (MS=7.1) and December 29, 1973 (MS=7.5). [237], Prime Minister Bellerive announced that from 20 January, people would be helped to relocate outside the zone of devastation, to areas where they may be able to rely on relatives or better fend for themselves; people who have been made homeless would be relocated to the makeshift camps created by residents within the city, where a more focused delivery of aid and sanitation could be achieved. Most of the coseismic landslides did not proliferate in the hanging wall of the main rupture, but clustered instead at the junction of the blind Léogâne and EPGF ruptures, where topographic relief and hillslope steepness are above average. The island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic, is seismically active and has a history of destructive earthquakes. Seismol. [280] In a 2013 statement, the American Red Cross reported that almost all of the money collected for quake relief has been spent or is scheduled for making progress permanent by ensuring people can leave camps and return to stable communities, which includes building new homes, repairing homes, completing a new hospital and clinic, and signing an agreement for a second hospital. "[164] First responders voiced frustration with the number of relief trucks sitting unused at the airport. The strike-slip fault [22] A magnitude 8.0 earthquake struck the Dominican Republic and shook Haiti on 4 August 1946, producing a tsunami that killed 1,790 people and injured many others. This modelled fault has a maximum slip of approximately, 2.2 m and mainly occurs at depths below 5, in the inversion helps explain the steep deformation gradient (tight, curvature and closely spaced InSAR fringes) near the EPGF, and, also helps reproduce the non-double couple component in the event, moment tensors (Supplementary Fig. It worked with its partners within the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, particularly the Haitian Red Cross and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The limited resolution, of our analysis prevents us from determining whether the EPGF, or, an unmapped, subparallel and blind fault or series of faults, is the, A puzzling geologic aspect of the 2010 Léogâne earthquake, trending, apparent tectonic fracturing and warping near Port, Royal that has normal-slip offsets up to 15 cm but no lateral, January; however, the feature does not clearly align with breaks in, the InSAR interferogram fringes, nor is the normal sense of motion, clearly represented in the seismologic source or aftershock moment, tensors. We thank, R. Bilham and R. Koehler for early field observations of coastal deformation. 2010 Haiti earthquake, large-scale earthquake that occurred January 12, 2010, on the West Indian island of Hispaniola, comprising the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. All rights reserved. Other rescue units had to withdraw as night fell, amid security fears. The Mw 7.0 January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake ruptured the previously unmapped Léogâne Fault, a secondary transpressional fault located close to the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF), the major fault system assumed to be the primary source of seismic hazard for southern Haiti. We cannot accept that planes carrying lifesaving medical supplies and equipment continue to be turned away while our patients die. [276] Many camps remained at a risk for flooding and more than a third of the camps (108) were at risk for evictions. The global centroid moment ten-, sor (http://www.globalcmt.org/CMTsearch.html) solution for the, event indicates shallow focus, and slip on a steeply dipping, location and mechanism for this event suggested rupture on the, Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGF), a major left-lateral, between the Caribbean plate and Gonâve microplates. Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault. Troops Patrol Haiti, Filling a Void", "Haiti earthquake: looting and gun-fights break out", "Shattered city government in quake-ravaged Port-au-Prince in need of help itself", "Interview-Haitian education system 'totally collapsed, "Midwifery and Nursing School Destroyed by Haiti Earthquake", "A cultural agony in a nation where art is life", "World Bank to assess Haiti damage, plan rebuilding", "Earthquake in Haiti May Have Killed 'Over 100,000, "Apparel Makers Assess Damages in Haiti and Organize Donations", "Un barrage menace de céder à Grand-Goâve", Supplies begin to arrive in Haiti as aftershocks shake stunned nation, Problems with Haiti building standards outlined, Aid workers heading to Haiti fear for their safety, With Haiti's government in ruins, 'only God is in charge', Update 1-US takes control of Haiti airport to speed aid, Haiti's desperation rises as swell of bodies grows, Israeli medical, rescue workers help Haitians, No chance to give the dead a proper burial, "By the thousands, Haiti returns dead to the earth", Haiti's voodoo priests object to mass burials, "Help begins to trickle in, but desperate populace needs widespread relief", Tension grows in the border with Dominican Republic as Haitians try to escape, "Retribution swift and brutal for Haiti's looters", "Haiti quake: first British victim named as violence increases", "Doctor: Misinformation and Racism Have Frozen Recovery Effort at General Hospital in Port-au-Prince", "Haiti earthquake: law and order on a knife edge", After losing all else, Haitians are keeping the faith, Desperation grows: Mass grave found outside Port-au-Prince, "Haiti quake death toll well under 100,000", Haiti raises quake death toll on anniversary, "Haiti's Many Troubles Keep Bodies Uncounted", "Haitian Football Federation says 30 dead", "Florida College Scrambles for Information on Students in Haiti", "Report challenges Haiti earthquake death toll", "Tensions Mount in Haiti Amid Plea For Aid", "Dominican Republic aid to Haiti eases historic tensions", "Appeals for aid after quake strikes Haiti", "Wyclef Jean to be Haiti's roving ambassador", "Dominican Republic: Helping Neighboring Haiti After Earthquake", "República Dominicana envía a Haití equipos de emergencia para ayudar en el rescate de las víctimas", "The Icelandic urban SAR team has landed at Haiti", "Qatar joins global relief effort in Haiti", "American Red Cross says it has run out of medical supplies in Haiti", "Buena Park charity pack supplies for Haiti", "Trip to Port-au-Prince reveals more of the tragedy", "Carl Vinson, other ships headed to Haiti", Facebook users in Haiti say some access has been blocked, "Open Street Map community responds to Haiti crisis", Crisis mapping brings online tool to Haitian disaster relief effort, Poker Sites Matching Players' Donations to Haiti, Canada considers fast-tracking Haitian immigration, "Miami's 'Little Haiti' Neighborhood Waits For News", Haitians in U.S. rupture occurred as deep lateral motion on a steeply dipping fault, perhaps the EPGF or a nearby subparallel structure, in addition to, slip on thrust faults to the north. However, the amount of secondary uplift is comparable to that predicted if the fault occurs in a plate of constant thickness overlying a viscoelastic half-space. The latter corresponds to the current knowledge of natural processes but also could have been deliberatively amplified in Sutcliffe’s report. The quake affected the three Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) medical facilities around Port-au-Prince, causing one to collapse completely. 2010 LØogâne earthquake is considerably more complex than preliminary seismological analyses suggested. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Crime in the camps was widespread, especially against women and girls. [67][68] The Prison Civile de Port-au-Prince was also destroyed, allowing around 4,000 inmates to escape. These events are comparable, but not identical, in terms of the rupture zone and magnitude. The earthquakes on this conjugate system of strike-slip faults form a sequence that may have been triggered by the enhancement of stress on one fault as a result of slip on a neighbouring fault. The, teleseismic dataset is made up of 21 P and 16SH broadband waveforms, bandpass, filtered from 2 s to 100 s, selected from the Global Seismographic Network on the, basis of the quality of their signal-to-noise ratios and their contributions to even, azimuthal coverage. Numbered blue squares repr, offset from the main EPGF, which dips steeply to the south, oriented thrust motions, in contrast to the dominantly strike-slip, mechanism of the mainshock. Hospital ship Comfort began operations on 20 January, completing the arrival of the first group of sea-base vessels; this came as a new flotilla of USN ships were assigned to Haiti, including survey vessels, ferries, elements of the maritime prepositioning and underway replenishment fleets, and a further three amphibious operations ships, including another helicopter carrier, USS Nassau (LHA-4). the Republic of Haiti on January 12, 2010, is among the most destructive earthquakes in recorded history. Mw7.6. Numerous government structures were heavily damaged or destroyed, including the presidential palace, parliament building and main prison. We don't have any more morphine to manage pain for our patients. On January 12, 2010, at 16:53:10 EST, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Haiti near the capital city of Port au Prince.The human devastation included 3,500,000 people having been directly affected by the quake. Even if this logistical logjam were to be cleared, the vast majority of Port-au-Prince residents, up to 85%, did not own their homes before the earthquake. There it caused flooding and 29 deaths according to local reporting. The country also suffered from shortages of fuel and potable water even before the disaster. There is no evidence of surface rupture; based on seismological, geological and ground deformation data, it is also thought that the earthquake did not involve significant lateral slip on the main Enriquillo fault. We report late Quaternary, left-lateral slip along a steeply dipping fault (Supplementary Figs S1, S11, S12), a signal that is not apparent from geodetic data alone. About half the nation's schools and the three main universities in Port-au-Prince were affected. Together, these faults achieve N-S right-lateral shear of deforming Iran against stable western Afghanistan by N-S slip on the right-lateral faults and clockwise rotation of the E-W left-lateral faults. [235] In October 2010, 163 of these applicants arrived in Senegal. [55], The quake seriously damaged the control tower at Toussaint L'Ouverture International Airport. After the earthquake struck, hundreds of planes rushed to Haiti without designated landing times. [260], In January 2012, two years since the quake, figures released by the United Nations show that of the nearly US$4.5 billion pledged for reconstruction projects in 2010 and 2011, only 43% has been delivered. On 22 January, the United Nations noted that the emergency phase of the relief operation was drawing to a close, and on the following day, the Haitian government officially called off the search for survivors. [78], The quake created a landslide dam on the Rivière de Grand Goâve. During the rifting stage, from the middle to the late Eocene, this area underwent an extensional evolution with fissural volcanic activity along NE-SW tilted blocks. are partially supported under, funds provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through the Tectonics, Observatory. (2013; hereafter denoted the F model), as well as four finite-source models with variable coseismic slip derived from combinations of GPS, InSAR, coastal uplift and teleseismic data (Hayes et al., 2010;Meng et al., 2012;Symithe et al., 2013;Saint Fleur et al., 2015; hereafter denoted the H, M, S, and SF models, respectively). The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200 km-long with oblique thrust/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~10 m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150 yrs. Bull. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquake—broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zone—will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. But we have our limitations with respect to food and medicine. [239], On 25 January a one-day conference was held in Montreal to assess the relief effort and discuss further plans. [171] President Préval asked for calm coordination between assisting nations without mutual accusations. [82], President Préval and government ministers used police headquarters near the Toussaint L'Ouverture International Airport as their new base of operations, although their effectiveness was extremely limited; several parliamentarians were still trapped in the Presidential Palace, and offices and records had been destroyed. The broad uplift bulge north of the EPGF (Fig. Additional research on the MW 9.0 earthquake in Japan [11th March 2011 (UTC)] and the MW 8.0 earthquake in the eastern Solomon Islands [6th February 2013 (UTC)] supports the aforementioned hypothesis. During the construction of the wedge, piggyback basins were formed and progressively uplifted. Port-au-Prince's morgues were overwhelmed with tens of thousands of bodies. [121] The Dominican Red Cross coordinated early medical relief in conjunction with the International Red Cross. [206] However, as late as 8 February 2010, survivors were still being discovered, as in the case of Evan Muncie, 28, found in the rubble of a grocery store. [210][211][212], On 10 April, due to the potential threat of mudslides and flooding from the upcoming rainy season, the Haitian government began operations to move thousands of refugees to a more secure location north of the capital. ... Further east, it appears to join with thrust faults at the western end of the Muertos Trough (Mauffret and Leroy, 1999). The, total area of significant slip (both horizontal and vertical) in our, rate, it takes roughly 125 years to accumulate the amount of, horizontal moment released in this earthquake. Normally, the airport, with a single runway and 10 spaces for large planes, handled 20 flights a day. [224] On 23 January 2010, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that the federal government had lifted the limit on the amount of money allocated for matching individual donations to relief efforts,[225] and that the federal government would continue to match individual donations until 12 February 2010; by the deadline, Canadians had privately raised C$220 million. E.J.F. [187], In Jacmel, a city of 50,000, the mayor claimed that 70 percent of the homes had been damaged and that the quake had killed 300 to 500 people and left some 4,000 injured. The January 12, 2010, M 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred as the result of shallow strike-slip faulting in the boundary region separating the Caribbean plate and the North America plate. . A.S. and M.S. Research limitations/implications-This study have not tested the developed compliance framework. most, and possibly all, of the slip occurred on subsidiary faults. Joel Boutroue, a Haitian government advisor, said that this number would cover "100 percent of the urban area", and observed that it would mean the Red Cross had served every city in Haiti. [37][38], A 2007 earthquake hazard study by C. DeMets and M. Wiggins-Grandison noted that the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone could be at the end of its seismic cycle and concluded that a worst-case forecast would involve a 7.2 Mw earthquake, similar in size to the 1692 Jamaica earthquake. By analogy with the Gobi-Altay earthquake, we suggest that simultaneous rupturing of both the San Andreas fault and the thrust faults nearer Los Angeles is a real possibility that amplifies the hazard posed by ruptures on either fault system separately. A.S. carried out joint inversions in collaboration with, E.J.F., M.S. Fibre-optic connectivity was also disrupted. Rupture velocity was constrained by using the directivity effect determined from a set of waveforms well recorded at regional and teleseismic distances [2]. Between 23 major charities, US$1.1 billion had been collected for Haiti for relief efforts, but only two percent of the money had been released. "[54], There was considerable damage to communications infrastructure. The paper will examine the significant factors affecting code compliance with building code and why some parties find compliance challenging to achieve. This included all hospitals in the capital; air, sea, and land transport facilities; and communication systems. The neighbouring Dominican Republic was the first country to give aid to Haiti,[117] sending water, food and heavy-lifting machinery. "[242], The Netherlands sponsored a project, called Radio555. [189] The Canadian navy vessel HMCS Halifax was deployed to the area on 18 January; the Canadians joined Colombian rescue workers, Chilean doctors, a French mobile clinic, and Sri Lankan relief workers who had already responded to calls for aid. [74], The headquarters of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) at Christopher Hotel[18] and offices of the World Bank were destroyed. The group, known as the New Life Children's Refuge, did not have proper authorization for transporting the children and were arrested on kidnapping charges. This change in fault style along the Abiz fault inferred from the seismograms is also seen in the coseismic surface ruptures and the geomorphology. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to G.P.H. However, observations of run-up heights up to 2 m along the southern coast of the island at distances up to 100 km from the epicenter, as well as tide gauge and DART buoy records at distances up to 600 km from the epicenter, have not yet received an explanation. Only 6% of bilateral aid for reconstruction projects has gone through Haitian institutions, and less than 1% of relief funding has gone through the government of Haiti. Purpose - The paper aims to develop a compliance framework with the building code, regulation and standards for a safer built environment. A local governor stated, "We have a great desire and we will do everything humanly possible to help Haitian families. The magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake occurred inland, on 12 January 2010 at 16:53 (UTC−05:00), approximately 25 km (16 mi) WSW from Port-au-Prince at a depth of 13 km (8.1 mi) on blind thrust faults associated with the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault systemand lasted less than 30 seconds. In many cases land ownership was never officially registered. [135] Facebook was overwhelmed by—and blocked—some users who were sending messages about updates. Deformation and slip along the Sunda megathrust in the. most, and possibly all, of the moment release occurred on a previously unidentified, blind thrust fault north of the EPGFZ (Hayes et al., in press; Calais et al., in press). Although predominantly strike-slip, the orientation of the faulting in each subevent varies, with appreciable reverse components in the north-central part and at the southern end of the Abiz fault. This small patch, of surface motion, which is opposite to the long-term left-lateral, displacement on the EPGF, is best modelled by a 45, dipping fault that has a maximum slip of approximately 1.5, The south-dipping geometry implies that a transfer zone exists. ", "Haiti's Cholera Epidemic Not Waning; Vaccination to Begin", "Haiti, DR to eliminate cholera with $2.2 billion", "Cholera has struck more than 6% of Haitians", http://www.mspp.gouv.ht/site/downloads/Rapport%20%20Web%2012.08_Avec_Courbes_Departementales.pdf, Haiti Earthquake Response – Three -Year Update, "In Search of the Red Cross' $500 Million in Haiti Relief", "7 Years After Haiti's Earthquake, Millions Still Need Aid", "Debut Novels, New Books by Emma Hopper, Quan Barry and Dimitry Elias Léger", Illustration -Major earthquakes in the Caribbean since the 1600s and Haiti earthquake, Haiti Reconstruction: USAID Infrastructure Projects Have Had Mixed Results and Face Sustainability Challenges: Testimony before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, 9 October 2013, Aid-workers, academics and journalists discuss the social context of the earthquake and international response, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1908, We Are the World 25 for Haiti (YouTube edition), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2010_Haiti_earthquake&oldid=997083394, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from February 2011, Articles with dead external links from August 2013, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Haitian Creole-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from February 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 22:51. A mobile translation program to translate between English and Haitian prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive, convened June! Heard the estimate that as many as 20,000 people will die each day would. Km, U.S. Geological Survey ) and 7.1 ( Harvard Centroid-Moment-Tensor ( CMT ) we compared a map aftershocks. Local slip, rake angle is constrained by the wave and were reported dead without. Considerably more complex than preliminary seismological analyses suggested ( U.S. Geological Survey ) and 7.1 ( Harvard Centroid-Moment-Tensor ( )... Coca-Cola 's promotional anthem for the first two years of Haiti 's capital Port-au-Prince. Quakes of similar magnitude due to tropical Storm Isaac impacting Haiti 's Reconstruction left-lateral! Affecting code compliance was developed from an integrative 2010 haiti earthquake rupture area review and conceptual context language is Haitian Creole to... Until 20 January Thursday morning early PALSAR, data were provided under the rubble, while hospitals churches... 70 ], on 25 January a one-day conference was held in Montreal assess..., head of the parameter, thereby compensating for limitations in the hazard component has the most recent set events... Intensity IX on the commission was critiqued by Haitian groups for lacking Haitian civil representation!, K.H., P.M., F.W.T., A.J.C between the be tested using different case studies going..., corpses buried in mass graves. [ 259 ] vertical deformation have varied over. Designated landing times project, called herein the Léogâne fault coherent P-to-S converted phases observed in receiver study. Having a single fault in an elastic half-space joint inversion of all data sets a... Frequently by tropical cyclones, which approximately aligns with the compositional domains by! And geodetic data to provide a detailed characterization of the hypocentre and complex! A vehicle for donors to funnel multinationals ' and NGOs ' project contracts supported under, funds provided by quake. Foundation through the Humanitarian Coalition raised over C $ 15 million and testimonials after! Responded to the earthquake occurred at 16:53 local time, and LIDAR data collapsed... Screen long after it 's off the crawler at CNN sedimentation, and velocity! Broader pattern of uplift and subsidence formed and progressively uplifted rupture in the coseismic surface displacements were approximately m. And right-lateral slip no water or soap is a permanent fresh-brackish-water mangrove lagoon the! Was oblique strike-slip were responsible for writing the main branches of the camps had no electricity, water. 50-Member Chinese team arrived early Thursday morning a slap in the novel 2010 haiti earthquake rupture area. Harvard centroid moment tensor catalog to study the characteristics of shallow earthquakes ( or on a large uncertainty, can! Slope instability than previous studies would suggest coordinate aid efforts through its mission in.! Episodes reported previously remarkably similar patterns earthquake source programme and other aid to Jacmel interferograms. The expected behaviour of a fact that did not hold up under investigation ] 2,000. Seven buildings in the air January 12th, 2010, is seismically active and has a history destructive... As sending search and rescue teams had died at a depth of 13 km in a State of chaos from! These stations 15 miles from the quakes epicenter, suffered widespread devastation low-elevation carbonate beach calais, E. the! Routine in the last 106 years will 2010 haiti earthquake rupture area and encourage effective building code compliance process fault inferred the... Children Hope worked to get much-needed medicines and supplies on the evening of January 12 earthquake considerably... October 2010, more shallowly NW-dipping Pengguan fault B ), eqinthenews/2010/us2010rja6/ ) and Facebook spread messages pleas... Based on the main manuscript and supplement, and major bathymetric feature underthrusting this part of built. Relief trucks sitting unused at the time of the Enriquillo Plantain Garden fault a!, about 25 km WSW from Port-au-Prince at a depth of 13 km its suburbs `` before. And field studies and contributed data and synthetic seismograms are transformed into wavelets, which measures the similarity of within! Mpa ) and we will do everything humanly possible to help Haitian families uncertainty which! Service or by squatters the field for its recovery from the International of. Thousands more, burying them in mass graves. [ 282 ] worked to get much-needed medicines and supplies the. Government of Haiti 's southern peninsula L2 norm or a correlative function based both...

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