All these sub-functions are performed in such a manner that there are right persons on different jobs. Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility: Is Co-Ordination and Co-Operation Inter-Changeable, Advantages of Good Co-Ordination System – Increases the Efficiency, Improves the Morale and Develops and Retains Good Personnels. Group Meetings – The managers and other officials meet to discuss common problems of organisation and the top management will provide solutions for smooth working. Controlling also contributes towards achieving co-ordination. He can define the authority of his subordinates, their functions, and timing of performance of these functions. Specialists take care of various specialized functions (such as purchasing, production, finance, marketing, etc.). (a) Determines the standard of work to be done by the personnels; (b) Evaluates the work and conduct of those who are working under him; (c) Explains the policies and programmes; and. (3) It is an orderly arrangement of group activities which is a necessity in all activities, particularly in a group activity it is most essential. Further, James D. Mooney considers co-ordination as the first principle of organisation and Ralph C. Davis considers co-ordination primarily as a vital phase of controlling. The line of authority and responsibility should be clearly defined to achieve coordination. Coordination therefore requires not only “hard” skills like knowing how to organize a needs assessment or lead the development of a contingency plan, but also it requires less tangible skills. Coordination is impossible without cooperation. Everything you need to know about techniques of coordination in management. Under direction a manager has to perform the following functions: (a) To take decisions on problems arising from time-to-time; (b) To direct and guide the personnels under his charge; (c) To evaluate the activities of personnels; (d) To issue orders and instructions from time to time; and. Co-ordination is the result of the process of management. Effective leadership ensures coordination both at the planning and the implementing stage. Horizontal Coordination In horizontal coordination, employees of the same status establish a relationship between them for better performance. So, there is a need for coordination between the supervisors and the top executives. It involves synchronization of different actions, so that planned objectives can be achieved with the minimum of conflict. If each executive and employee derives job satisfaction, there will be a tendency on the part of the executives and employees to stay with the organisation. Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility – There is a line of authority in every enterprise which indicates as to who is accountable to whom. Without the process of integration of diverse activities, roles and authority relationships will not be clear, Staffing function involves manpower planning, employment, training, wage fixation, merit rating, job evaluation etc. 3. This tendency is more discernible if the compensation of the executives is determined in relation to the financial performance of his department. Liaison – A PRO or Liaison officer will co-ordinate and activate the functions of various departments and facilitate control of activities. Coordination through Organising. The resources flow through productive channels, paving the way for required quality and quantity of output. To conclude, a manager plays an important role as a co-ordinator. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Group decision making provides opportunities for free discussion and exchange of ideas, problems, proposals, and solutions. Coordination must be accompanied by cooperation. – Alan C. Reiley and James D. Mooney. It is managers’ duty to see that the co-ordination exists in the entire organisation although he cannot order for it. Doctors and professionals from each specialised area meet to discuss the patient’s recovery. Elements 7. Generally organizations are groups of interdependent departments. State Bank of India branches or Wimpey’s restaurants, are examples of pooled interdependence. This helps to reduce conflicts among different positions. It is the responsibility of a manager to coordinate the activities of all the departments of the organization for achieving the predetermined objectives. Managerial integrators are specially appointed managers or special coordinators who coordinate the products or projects. They are- (1) Planning, (2) Doing, and (3) Seeing. Establishment of Separate Department for Coordination, Louis Allen says Balancing, Timing and Integrating are Effective Coordination Techniques, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 6 Major Techniques: Coordination by Chain of Command, Coordination by Leadership and a Few Other Techniques, Techniques of Co-Ordination in Management, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 2 Popular Techniques: Oral and Written Techniques, Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management, Importance of Proper Coordination to Achieve Organizational Objectives, Achieving Coordination in an Organisation: 12 Techniques, Difference between Coordination and Cooperation | Management. This results in ineffective coordination. Following are the elements of coordination: Coordination integrates individual efforts of each unit so that the unit works as a group. Coordination is the function of management which ensures that different departments and groups work in sync. Co-ordination tones up general level of employee morale and job satisfaction. Coordination enables an organisation to use its resources in an optimum way. The fourth principle, advocated by Follet, is that coordination is a continuous and never-ending process. Management can achieve better coordination through effective leadership and supervision. The management can arrange the departments in such a way so as to get better coordination among the departmental heads. Coordinating function of the management has two forms of coordination namely (i) vertical coordination and horizontal coordination. This can be done by better horizontal communication. However, role of chain of command in achieving vertical coordination is limited. Those functions include planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and staffing. Such personal contacts bring about agreement on methods, actions, and ultimate achievement of objectives. Techniques of Coordination in Management – 2 Main Techniques: Specific and General Techniques, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 6 Common Techniques, Techniques of Coordination in Management –, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 6 Main Techniques, 6. Mangers use a variety of techniques in the business organisation to achieve co-ordination. For example, when A works with B and he, in turn, works with C and D, each of the four, find themselves influenced by others that is influenced by all the people in the total situation. 4. In this view, the design of a process depends on the coordination mechanisms chosen to manage dependencies among tasks and resources involved in the process. Effective co-ordination cannot be achieved without the actual co-operation of the group members. The committees usually comprise of representatives from all departments. Balancing and a Few Others. The channels of communication used in the enterprise should be reliable so that they are able to create proper understanding in the minds of the receivers. But that does not mean that co-ordination originates automatically from the voluntary efforts of the group members. Poor coordination is caused quite often by lack of understanding of who is to perform what or due to the fact that the manager did not clearly delegate authority and exact responsibility. This results in ineffective coordination. The manager can also clearly define the work of his subordinates, their role, function, and timing of performing the work, in order to achieve co-ordination. Thus committees solve many managerial problems and serve as a sound technique of co-ordination. In this review we begin by discussing the origins of interest in coordination, tracing some of the classic perspectives. Menu. Integrating means to unify diverse time and goal orientations of interdependent departments in a manner that they jointly contribute to accomplishment of overall organisational objectives. The basic objective of all managerial functions is to get things done by coordinate efforts. Coordination between various departments of an enterprise; iv. Deliberate effort. Coordinating makes planning more purposeful, organisation more well-knit, and control more regulative and effective. Horizontal coordination between various departments is essential for synchronization of diverse activities of an organization. They understand and adjust with each other by developing mutual trust, cooperation and understanding. It ensures that resources and tasks are assigned to individuals and departments in a manner that working of one department promotes the working of other departments. The systems approach ensures better coordination by considering an organisation as a system, consisting of different sub-systems. The coordinator of an enterprise must also direct and coordinate the activities of various personnel so as to bring unified element in the task of managing and must be effected through the various functions of the management. The management should arrange departments in such a way, so as to get coordination among the departmental heads. New Articles Recent posts or updates on Simplicable. It persuades the people working in groups to keep group interests above their personal interests. Coordination ends only after the control function. Similarly, harmony and sweet voice in music cannot be achieved by the orchestra party unless an orchestra conductor co-ordinates the activities of the group members. Periodic staff meetings can be highly effective in promoting coordination. This is achieved by forming cross-functional teams and self-managed teams. Further, co-ordination is the integration, synchronisation or orderly pattern of group efforts in the enterprise towards the accomplishment of common objectives. The coordination is a function of management to synchronise, control, and integrate the efforts of the members of an organization. They should always be in tune. Therefore, the need for co-ordination arises from the diversity of tasks to be undertaken and of persons to carry them out. Co-ordination is a central problem of the organisation. Comprehensive programmes and policies are used for solving routine and repetitive problems faced by different departments. Permeated by all, should be the goal of all attempts at coordination. regarding their activities. 7. Effective communication helps a lot for achieving coordination. Cooperation refers to voluntary actions of members to work collectively as a group. The line of authority and responsibility should be clearly defined to achieve coordination. It is the most arduous function which the manager has to perform since staff accomplishes the tasks and achieves the set objectives. Through feedback and feed-forward control system, an organisation is in a position to check the functioning of various parts in the organisation. Content Guidelines 2. In involves an orderly arrangement of group efforts. 5. They depend on each other for information and resources to carry out their respective activities. Learn about:- 1. Coordination should start from the very beginning of planning process. We conjecture that the existence of coordination risk may contribute to bullwhip behavior. Task Forces 14. Here, good human relations exists because the authority – responsibility relationships are clear. Henry Fayol has stated that a well co-ordinated enterprise the following facts are to be observed: (1) Each department should work with the rest; (2) Each department, division and sub-division should be precisely informed as to the share they must take in communal task; (3) The working schedule of the various departments and sub-divisions should be constantly as per circumstances. The following factors are responsible in the way of effective coordination: This arises due to the selection of inefficient personnel. Project coordination is a project management method of assigning a person or a team to ensure that all aspects of the project are are completed in a timely manner, that snags are fixed and problems solved, and the project is finished on time and on budget. It enables various groups of people working in the organization to work harmoniously to achieve the goals. 4. Since they work with a common aim to achieve the pre-determined objectives. This results in ineffective coordination. Besides co-ordination of activities which serves as a-general control measure, “Budgetary control” devices including budgets such as production budget, cash budget, capital budget, sales budget etc., play a major role in controlling the plan activities. Management Basics; Coordination and Cooperation; Coordination and Cooperation . Under this function, standards of performance are established, and actual performance is compared with standard performance and deviation if any is measured, and then necessary corrective measures are undertaken. Mangers use a variety of techniques in the business organisation to achieve co-ordination. At the time of policy formulation and objective setting, coordination can be sought from organisational participants. Coordination definition is - the process of organizing people or groups so that they work together properly and well. Committees help to achieve horizontal coordination amongst efforts of different departments. Seven functions are usually associated with forecasting and planning. The lines of authority and responsibility of each individual member of the organization must also be spelt out clearly. The need for coordination arises from the fact that literally all organizations are a complex aggregation of diverse systems, which need to work or be operated in concert to produce desired outcomes. Smooth co-ordination and ultimate success of the enterprise is assumed by such a special co-ordination cell. Maintaining slack resources, thus, facilitates coordination amongst different departments and units. WHAT IS COORDINATION? Like making of time table in an educational institution is an apt example of establishing coordination. TOS Management of a big business is essentially a task of co-ordination. 1. Coordination between production and marketing departments at the same level or organizational hierarchy is an example of horizontal coordination. viii. Provisions of check and inspection – There should be provisions of check and inspection to know what is happening in the organisation. Well defined plans and goals help to achieve coordination by ensuring that efforts of all individuals and departments are directed towards organisational goals. Sometimes, in view of the growing complexity of activities of interdependent departments, as also rigid time and goal orientations, even liaison persons may not be able to deliver the desired results. This is one of the effective techniques of coordination. Without coordination efforts of individuals cannot be united and integrated; that is why while performing various activities in the organisation managers deliberately perform coordination function. 5. Liaison or Relationship Roles 13. In the social sciences, coordinated management of meaning (CMM) provides understanding of how individuals create, coordinate and manage meanings in their process of communication.Generally, it refers to "how individuals establish rules for creating and interpreting meaning and how those rules are enmeshed in a conversation where meaning is constantly being coordinated". " Coordination is one of the important functions of management. The conflict between line and staff personnel can also be avoided through proper coordination. In some cases, a particular person is appointed to coordinate the work of a particular nature. Various managerial positions are made well-connected through vertical, horizontal, and diagonal channels of communication. The problems and nature of human beings are so complicated that they always present problems of co-ordination. As these departments are interdependent, co-ordination is automatically established. It defines the activities of the enterprise in terms of individual tasks and the activities that are grouped into homogenous work units and authority positions. The department of coordination may be staffed with specialists in fields such as production, marketing, finance, etc., and the head may be asked to report directly to a top manager. 4. Clearly Defined Goals – The goals of the enterprise should be laid down clearly. The absence of this will create improper condition and atmosphere in which it would be difficult for any person to stay for long in the organisation. Coordination is a continuous process. It is the management of interdependence. The conflict of goals arises because everybody perceives the organisational goals differently and tries to achieve them is his own way. Understanding Project Planning Basics Various types of plans such as objectives, policies, strategies schedules and programmes serve as means of coordinating the activities of the enterprise spread over several departments and divisions. It usually focuses on inventory management and ordering decisions in distributed inter-company settings. Co-ordination can easily be achieved if managerial functions are properly designed and executed. He has to co-ordinate the efforts of his sub-ordinates in order to see that: (a) The orders and instructions are being carried out. Flat organisation structure allows the employees to interact and communicate freely and frequently with their superiors. 7 Examples of Digital Channels. Coordination – Introduction, Meaning and Nature of Co-Ordination, Definitions by Eminent Writers: Alan C. Reiley, James D. Mooney, George R.Terry and Ordway Tead. Well-defined work procedures – When the work procedures are well-defined and adhered to properly, these help to achieve coordination easily. (3) Co-Ordinating activities must respond to time, policies, programmes and objectives. The channels of the communication used in the enterprise should be reliable so that they are able to create proper understanding in the minds of receivers. There should be a clear line of authority in every organization which indicates who is accountable to whom. The individual member must know what is expected of him by his superior. 2. In this paper, I use coordination theory to analyze the software change process of a large mini-computer manufacturer. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Account Disable 12. With the help of direction, manager can influence the behaviour of individuals so as to evolve goal directed effort. Coordination Activities . Coordination must be accompanied by cooperation. (4) Co-Ordinating approach should be balanced and as far as possible it should be of both the types – vertical as well as horizontal. • A manager has to link these diverse groups towards the achievement of a common goal 3. Interaction between related departments facilitates effective coordination. Any shortcoming of coordination by means of rules and procedures may be made good by crafting a chain of command where a common supervisor has authority to monitor and control the interaction between individuals and departments concerned. On the other hand, supervisors also play an important role in coordination. It is a part of the managerial functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. (3) Develops and Retains Good Personnels: Co-ordination helps in evaluation of work and conduct of all those who are working for the enterprise. 2. Their problems difficulties, management’s expectation from them, solving their problems, exchanging various ideas, opinions, points of view, problems, and solutions are effectively discussed and resolved in such meetings. Liaison – A PRO or Liaison … Non-budgetary control devices such as managerial statistics, break-even analysis, internal audit, cost accounting etc. They move closer to each other. A manager achieves co-ordination through the management process and co-ordination is the outcome of managerial functions. This principle is rarely practised in day-to-day life. Understanding Project Planning Basics. Co-ordination of Command – The manager or superior directs or commands his workers to control their efforts by balancing accountability and operating time. Internal Coordination: Vertical and horizontal types of coordination, if carried out within an organization, are called internal coordination. All departments, sections etc. It transverses the entire process of managing. Coordination is the epitome of management. This technique of coordination is usually followed in large-sized organisations. also act as effective tools of control system. For example, the coordination between department heads, or supervisors, or co-workers, etc. If each department is handed a task to be completed within a given period, coordination will be much easier. Above all, the capacity and talent of people differ widely. Coordination, the process of interaction that integrates a collective set of interdependent tasks, is a central purpose of organizations. How to use coordination in a sentence. All this helps in achieving co-ordination in assigning tasks to various individuals. A definition of digital channel with examples. As such adequate facilities for good communication should be provided. Effective Communication – An effective system of communication is the key to proper co-ordination. Definitions of Coordination 3. The importance of coordination largely lies in the fact that it is the key to other functions of management like planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. Getting the work done is one part of his function and it is the ultimate aim of any manager. It means keeping buffer stock of resources. Co-ordination is a continuous process and it is done at all levels of management. 6. In fact, co-ordination makes planning more purposeful, organisation better-knit and control more regulative, it is the key to the process of management. Differences in Attitudes and Working Styles: PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity, 4 different Types of Coordination for improving the ability of an employee. Organisation – coordination becomes easier when the differentiated sub-systems are integrated properly through coordination tracing. Users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge the desired goals relations between peer groups of manager. 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