The circulatory, digestive and excretory systems all react when the oil is used. The primary factor contributing to the evolution of dark skin pigmentation was the breakdown of folate in reaction to ultraviolet radiation; the relationship between folate breakdown induced by ultraviolet radiation and reduced fitness as a failure of normal embryogenesis and spermatogenesis led to the selection of dark skin pigmentation. Pooja Kannan, 27, from Mumbai, spent years buying cosmetics that promised to lighten her complexion. , Humans with dark skin pigmentation have skin naturally rich in melanin (especially eumelanin), and have more melanosomes which provide superior protection against the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation.  Half of the solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface is in the form of infrared light and is absorbed similarly regardless of skin coloration. While high UV radiation can cause skin cancer, the development of cancer usually occurs after child-bearing age. Solar radiation heats up the body's surface and not the interior. , Melanesia, a subregion of Oceania, whose name means "black islands", have several islands that are inhabited by people with dark skin pigmentation. Mexican-American women in Arizona, California, and Texas have reportedly suffered mercury poisoning after using whitening creams to bleach their skin. However, Melanesians are one of the dark-skinned human populations known to have naturally-occurring blond hair. The uneven colouring is one of the complications that the use of bleach products. , In people with naturally occurring dark skin, the tanning occurs with the dramatic mobilization of melanin upward in the epidermis and continues with the increased production of melanin. i understand the curly hairs, but dark skin ? Modern humans are often ignorant of their evolutionary history at their peril. , There is a correlation between the geographic distribution of UV radiation (UVR) and the distribution of skin pigmentation around the world. She bought creams, facewash and soaps for treating “skin fairness problems”, spending Rs 200–300 every two months – equivalent to a week’s worth of travel to her college . Eumelanin protects tissues and DNA from the radiation damage of UV light. Cells called melanocytes, located just below the outer surface of the skin, produce melanin, which is in higher levels in people with darker skin. Because it is impractical to wear extensive clothing in a watery environment, culture and technology does little to buffer UVR exposure. • Light skin is more prone to sunburn so all you PPPs out there, make sure you use sunblock with at least SPF 30 religiously! Today, darker skin is viewed as fashionable and as a sign of well-being in some societies. Don’t believe me? A larger percentage of dark-skinned people are found in the Southern Hemisphere because latitudinal land mass distribution is disproportionate. , The earliest primate ancestors of modern humans most likely had light skin, like our closest modern relative—the chimpanzee.  Dark-skinned populations inhabiting Africa, Australia, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea and South Asia all live in some of the areas with the highest UV radiation in the world, and have evolved very dark skin pigmentations as protection from the sun's harmful rays. Because of this people with fair skin absorb more of the benefits from UV light. However, a 1999 study failed to find clear indications of a single shared genetic origin between the two populations, suggesting multiple waves of migration into Sahul with distinct ancestries. TwT, I agree with dark skin !  This is associated with lower skin cancer rates among dark-skinned populations. It has been argued that the low melanoma mortality rates during reproductive age cannot be the principal reason behind the development of dark skin pigmentation. , Skin colour is a polygenic trait, which means that several different genes are involved in determining a specific phenotype. Water reflects, depending on colour, about 10 to 30% of UVR that falls on it. Recent research suggest that the photoprotective effect of dark skin is increased by the fact that melanin can capture free radicals, such as hydrogen peroxide, which are created by the interaction of UVR and layers of the skin. Reference SNP(refSNP) Cluster Report: rs1426654 **clinically associated** Archived 5 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov (30 December 2008). It has been found that folate may have been the driving force behind the evolution of dark skin. This was in part due to the reduced pressure from UVR skin damage, but also because black skin became a disadvantage, possibly because [pale skin is better at generating vitamin D] … , The main other hypotheses that have been put forward through history to explain the evolution of dark skin coloration relate to increased mortality due to skin cancers, enhanced fitness as a result of protection against sunburns, and increasing benefits due to antibacterial properties of eumelanin. Although dark-skinned people have a natural protection against skin cancer, that doesn't mean it can't occur. From the above list, yes it does seem that way but guess what, darker skin has a HUGE advantage over paler skin too – it ages better! , The evolution of dark skin is believed to have begun around 1.2 million years ago, in light-skinned early hominid species after they moved from the equatorial rainforest to the sunny savannas. All Rights Reserved. , Data collected from studies on MC1R gene has shown that there is a lack of diversity in dark-skinned African samples in the allele of the gene compared to non-African populations.  In addition, recent studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to autoimmune diseases, hypertension, multiple sclerosis, diabetes and incidence of memory loss. Natural stimulant. i have pale skin and my face turns really red when i’m flushed :(.  Of all the major skin cancer types, only malignant melanoma have a major effect in a person's reproductive age. Lighter-skinned people can get enough vitamin D after 10 to 15 minutes of sun exposure a few times a week, but people with dark complexions may need five to 10 times more sun exposure to synthesize that same amount of vitamin D [source: Zelman ]. People need to realize that “dark” skin is the human norm.  The presence of pheomelanin in light skin increases the oxidative stress in melanocytes, and this combined with the limited ability of pheomelanin to absorb UVR contributes to higher skin cancer rates among light-skinned individuals. Scientists tested the ancient and present-day Genome-wide analysis of 49 Central and South Americans up to 11,000 years old from Belize, Brazil, Peru, and the Southern Cone (Chile and Argentina)..  Several genetic surveys of South Asian populations in different regions have found a weak negative correlation between social status and skin darkness, represented by the melanin index. Outside the tropics UVR has to penetrate through a thicker layer of atmosphere, which results in most of the intermediate wavelength UVB reflected or destroyed en route; because of this there is less potential for vitamin D biosynthesis in regions far from the equator. Melanoma and Dark Skin. Having more melanin in your skin means that you have a little more protection from the sun, and you may be less prone to premature signs of aging. there are more disadvantages to darker skin? For example, Wilson et al. The loss of body hair led to the development of dark skin pigmentation, which acted as a mechanism of natural selection against folate depletion, and to a lesser extent, DNA damage. , In the world, blond hair is exceptionally rare outside Europe and Southwest Asia, especially among dark-skinned populations. Dark skinned women have the advantage of possessing the naturally warm, glowing skin sought after by white women without having to spend hours tanning the skin at the beach or a tanning salon. Another possible problem might be discoloration, especially if you have dark skin. These populations are probably near or at the maximum darkness that human skin can achieve. ISSN 0002-8762. 87 (4): 918. doi:10.2307/1857900. , Although darkly-pigmented skin absorbs about 30 to 40% more sunlight than lightly-pigmented skin, dark skin does not increase the body's internal heat intake in conditions of intense solar radiation. Dalits had, on average, the darkest skin. This does not mean, however, that you should avoid using sunscreen.  The antimicrobial hypothesis also does not explain why some populations (like the Inuit or Tibetans) who live far from the tropics and are exposed to high UVR have darker skin pigmentation than their surrounding populations. The speed of change is also affected by clothing, which tends to slow it down. , Dark skin offers great protection against UVR because of its eumelanin content, the UVR-absorbing capabilities of large melanosomes, and because eumelanin can be mobilized faster and brought to the surface of the skin from the depths of the epidermis. A discoloration of your skin might occur for a number of reasons 1. Areas that are further away from the equator and generally closer to the poles have a lower concentration of UVR and contain lighter-skinned populations.  Humans living in hot and sunny environments have darker skin than humans who live in wet and cloudy environments. At times, individuals with more sweat glands were born. Cons Of Having A Light Complexion Light skin girls 5dollars. Indigenous populations' skin reflectance (the amount of sunlight the skin reflects) and the actual UV radiation in a particular geographic area is highly correlated, which supports this idea. Keratocytes from dark skin cocultured with melanocytes give rise to a melanosome distribution pattern characteristic of dark skin. Women need folate to maintain healthy eggs, for proper implantation of eggs, and for the normal development of placenta after fertilization. The popularity of sugary drinks and decreased time spent outside have contributed to significant rise of developing rickets. As a younger person with dark skin, I’m still waiting to see those pros!  The stratum corneum of people with dark or heavily tanned skin is more condensed and contains more cornified cell layers than in lightly-pigmented humans. The most prevalent disease to follow vitamin D deficiency is rickets, the softening of bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. In both regions, they experience very high UVR exposure from cloudless skies near the equator which is reflected from water or sand. This disease in the past was commonly found among dark-skinned Americans of the southern part of the United States who migrated north into low sunlight environments. Early humans, like chimpanzees now, had few sweat glands, and most of them were located in the palms of the hand and the soles of the feet.  Melanin is produced inside small membrane-bound packages called melanosomes. Exfoliate regularly!  However, these cancer types usually affect people at the end or after their reproductive career and could have not been the evolutionary reason behind the development of dark skin pigmentation. Slaughter-Acey also checked to see how prenatal care use possibly varied across African American women with light brown, medium brown, or dark brown skin complexions. According to Nina Jablonski, darkly-pigmented modern populations in South India and Sri Lanka are an example of this, having re-darkened after their ancestors migrated down from areas much farther north. Vitamin D is needed to maintain healthy bones and to absorb calcium. , Native South Americans and Mesoamericans are also typically considered dark-skinned, ranking similarly to African and Oceanian populations in regards to Ala111 presence. An advantage of having darker skin, is that dark skin people have melanin which is a permanent sunscreen, this can reduce the risk of getting skin cancer, a disadvantage of having dark skin is that it increases susceptibility of osteoporosis. Yesterday, I asked you ladies to share your take on having a light versus dark complexion. Previous hypotheses suggested that sunburned nipples impeded breastfeeding, but a slight tan is enough to protect mothers against this issue. • Lighter skin has a thinner fat layer which can cause a more gaunt appearance with aging. , The term black initially has been applied as a reference to the skin pigmentation of the aborigines of Australia; today it has been embraced by aboriginal activists as a term for shared culture and identity, regardless of skin colour. why would dark hair be more likely to develop ingrown hairs ? Blemishes are nothing but dark spots on skin it can be cured by eating more of vitamin food and if required one can apply cream recommended by a Doctor. , Genetic tests show significant Austronesian influence, theorizing that Amazonian Indians and Austronesians both diverged from common ancestor. , Dark-pigmented people living in high sunlight environments are at an advantage due to the high amounts of melanin produced in their skin. Flaws like redness & scars show up really obvious. People with naturally-occurring dark skin have melanosomes which are clumped, large and full of eumelanin.  High levels of skin colour variation exists between different populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Premature Aging. 50 dollars for dark skin girls". Regardless of skin tone, dermatologists recommend … The more they could forage, the more and healthier offspring they could produce, and the higher the chance they had to pass on their genes for abundant sweat glands. 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