Along the way, the reader encounters some of the lowest and pitiful creatures that inhabit the streets of St Petersburg. It's the emotional attachment to the piece that makes you realize why he is still being read today. He sends her to a manor somewhere on a steppe, while Makar alleviates his misery and pain with alcohol. THE FOUR BEST DOSTOEVSKY NOVELS (illustrated) - Kindle edition by DOSTOEVSKY, FYODOR. Coetzee featured Dostoevsky as the protagonist in his 1997 novel The Master of Petersburg. Anna denied that the search had caused it, saying that the haemorrhage had occurred after her husband had been looking for a dropped pen holder. He was raised in the family home in the grounds of the Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor, which was in a lower class district on the edges of Moscow. Dostoevsky was occasionally sent to the military hospital, where he read newspapers and Dickens novels. Reviewed in the United Kingdom on December 23, 2016. Dostoevsky was among the first to recognize the symbolic possibilities of city life and imagery drawn from the city. Maria married Dostoevsky in Semipalatinsk on 7 February 1857, even though she had initially refused his marriage proposal, stating that they were not meant for each other and that his poor financial situation precluded marriage. They hoped to cancel their large debts by selling their rental house in Peski, but difficulties with the tenant resulted in a relatively low selling price, and disputes with their creditors continued. [84][87], The family returned to St Petersburg in September. Dostoevsky was accused of reading works by Belinsky, including the banned Letter to Gogol,[45] and of circulating copies of these and other works. [142] His early works viewed society (for example, the differences between poor and rich) through the lens of literary realism and naturalism. Dostoevsky felt out of place among his aristocratic classmates at the Moscow school, and the experience was later reflected in some of his works, notably The Adolescent. "[149], Dostoevsky is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential novelists of the Golden Age of Russian literature. The best way to get acquainted with Dostoyevsky is by reading Crime and Punishment. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it dies, it bringeth forth much fruit. After a fourteen-day sleigh ride, the prisoners reached Tobolsk, a prisoner way station. They spent five weeks in Baden-Baden, where Dostoevsky had a quarrel with Turgenev and again lost much money at the roulette table. He was a little over average height and looked at me intensely with his sharp, grey-blue eyes. He claimed that Catholicism had continued the tradition of Imperial Rome and had thus become anti-Christian and proto-socialist, inasmuch as the Church's interest in political and mundane affairs led it to abandon the idea of Christ. Eleven days later, Dostoevsky reached Omsk[47][49] together with just one other member of the Petrashevsky Circle, the poet Sergei Durov. Anna proposed that they raise money on her husband's copyrights and negotiate with the creditors to pay off their debts in installments. [59] In 1859 he was released from military service because of deteriorating health and was granted permission to return to European Russia, first to Tver, where he met his brother for the first time in ten years, and then to St Petersburg. I started with the Idiot, totally blown away by the depth of storytelling. [201] On the other hand, Grigory Eliseev of the radical magazine The Contemporary called the novel a "fantasy according to which the entire student body is accused without exception of attempting murder and robbery". Many of his longer novels were first published in serialised form in literary magazines and journals. From 1846 to 1848 he released several short stories in the magazine Annals of the Fatherland, including "Mr. Prokharchin", "The Landlady", "A Weak Heart", and "White Nights". Poor Folk is an epistolary novel that describes the relationship between the small, elderly official Makar Devushkin and the young seamstress Varvara Dobroselova, remote relatives who write letters to each other. During his stay he began The Adolescent. Fyodor Dostoyevsky $15.34. Had the serfs been found guilty and sent to Siberia, Khotiaintsev would have been in a position to buy the vacated land. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Demons (pre-reform Russian: Бѣсы; post-reform Russian: Бесы, tr. [82][83], Back in Russia in July 1871, the family was again in financial trouble and had to sell their remaining possessions. To allow us to provide a better and more tailored experience please click "OK", "Portrait of the Writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky" by Vasily Perov (1872) | via WikiCommons. [121] He thought democracy and oligarchy were poor systems; of France he wrote, "the oligarchs are only concerned with the interest of the wealthy; the democrats, only with the interest of the poor; but the interests of society, the interest of all and the future of France as a whole—no one there bothers about these things. In an 1881 edition of his Diaries, Dostoevsky stated that the Tsar and the people should form a unity: "For the people, the tsar is not an external power, not the power of some conqueror ... but a power of all the people, an all-unifying power the people themselves desired. Notes From The New World takes the classic book Notes From The Underground and transplants it in Los Angeles and it works remarkably well, proving Dostoyevsky on film can go places no one imagined. [179], Dostoevsky's books have been translated into more than 170 languages. The book includes numerous essays and a few short stories about society, religion, politics and ethics. [84][85], Dostoevsky revived his friendships with Maykov and Strakhov and made new acquaintances, including church politician Terty Filipov and the brothers Vsevolod and Vladimir Solovyov. [122] He found Protestantism self-contradictory and claimed that it would ultimately lose power and spirituality. After his release from prison, Dostoevsky incorporated religious themes, especially those of Russian Orthodoxy, into his writing. [115][116], Through a worker in Epoch, Dostoevsky learned of the Russian-born Martha Brown (née Elizaveta Andreyevna Chlebnikova), who had had affairs with several westerners. He was appointed an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, from which he received an honorary certificate in February 1879. In Tobolsk, the members received food and clothes from the Decembrist women, as well as several copies of the New Testament with a ten-ruble banknote inside each copy. Many of his longer novels were first published in serialised form in literary magazines and journals. Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky[a] (/ˌdɒstəˈjɛfski, ˌdʌs-/;[1] Russian: Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский[b], tr. [132] A deacon at the hospital gave him religious instruction. Dostoevsky's oeuvre consists of 11 novels, three novellas, 17 short stories and numerous other works. [112] He admitted later that he was uncertain about their relationship. While returning to St Petersburg to finalise his Diary, he visited Darovoye, where he had spent much of his childhood. Elements of gothic fiction,[145] romanticism,[146] and satire[147] are observable in some of his books. The only known facts about his situation are that he has quit the service, lives in a basement flat on the outskirts of Saint Petersburg and finances his livelihood from a modest inheritance. Dostoevsky did not refuse permission, but he advised against it, as he believed that "each art corresponds to a series of poetic thoughts, so that one idea cannot be expressed in another non-corresponding form". In English many of his novels and stories are known by different titles. Dostoevsky did not love her either, but they were probably good friends. Fyodor Dostoyevsky has 1754 books on Goodreads with 3706500 ratings. His psychologic sense is overwhelming and visionary. [148] Kornelije Kvas wrote that Bakhtin’s theory of "the polyphonic novel and Dostoevsky’s dialogicness of narration postulates the non-existence of the 'final' word, which is why the thoughts, emotions and experiences of the world of the narrator and his/her characters are reflected through the words of another, with which they can never fully blend. "A Beggar Boy at Christ's Christmas Tree" in, Military Engineering-Technical University, Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, Dostoyevskaya metro station in Saint Petersburg, Another Man's Wife and a Husband Under the Bed, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, https://books.google.es/books?id=n7fb7eH6nRUC&pg=PA218&dq=dostoyevsky+admired+tolstoy&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj30sbFpsvpAhWLA2MBHZLrDAYQ6AEIKzAA#v=onepage&q=dostoyevsky%20admired%20tolstoy&f=false, "Kafka and Dostoevsky as 'Blood Relatives, "A Dark View Of Dostoevsky On The Moscow Subway", https://books.google.es/books?id=3l9xDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA42&dq=Crime+and+Punishment+is+Dostoevsky%27s+magnum+opus.&hl=es&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiOy5TFkeHqAhUDCxoKHfVoDsgQ6AEwA3oECAYQAg#v=onepage&q=Crime%20and%20Punishment%20is%20Dostoevsky's%20magnum%20opus.&f=false, "Juxtaposition of the riligious and anti-religious in Crime and Punishment", "What was Dostoevsky's purpose in writing Crime and Punishment? [75] The couple travelled on to Geneva. [14][15] Although his father's approach to education has been described as strict and harsh,[16] Dostoevsky himself reports that his imagination was brought alive by nightly readings by his parents. His involvement in a scandalous love affair and the mistreatment by the people around him bring him back to where he started – a mental institution. "[121] He maintained that political parties ultimately led to social discord. "[109] When he died, his body was placed on a table, following Russian custom. The secondary characters, Pyotr and Stepan Verkhovensky, are based on Sergei Nechayev and Timofey Granovsky respectively. The years given below indicate the year in which the novel's final part or first complete book edition was published. He wanted the Muslim Ottoman Empire eliminated and the Christian Byzantine Empire restored, and he hoped for the liberation of Balkan Slavs and their unification with the Russian Empire.[120]. Maria and her son then moved with Dostoevsky to Barnaul. His father, a doctor, was a member of the Russian nobility, owned serfs and had a considerable estate near Moscow where he lived with his family. Although she divorced Dostoevsky's friend Stepan Yanovsky, she would not live with him. [25][26], Signs of Dostoevsky's epilepsy may have first appeared on learning of the death of his father on 16 June 1839,[27] although the reports of a seizure originated from accounts written by his daughter (later expanded by Sigmund Freud[28]) which are now considered to be unreliable. Anna managed the finances. Dostoyevsky is my Dostoyevsky. Joseph Frank, "Dostoevsky. The previous May, his parents had sent Dostoevsky and his brother Mikhail to St Petersburg to attend the free Nikolayev Military Engineering Institute, forcing the brothers to abandon their academic studies for military careers. He moved clumsily and jerkily; his uniform hung awkwardly on him; and his knapsack, shako and rifle all looked like some sort of fetter he had been forced to wear for a time and which lay heavily on him. [17] An incident involving a family servant, or serf, in the estate in Darovoye, is described in "The Peasant Marey": when the young Dostoevsky imagines hearing a wolf in the forest, Marey, who is working nearby, comforts him. They are the backbone of a country, and only through understanding the life of a voiceless human can the psychological portrait of a country begin to be painted. Dostoevsky's parents were part of a noble family of Russian Orthodox Christians.The family traced its roots back to a Tatar, Aslan Chelebi-Murza, who in 1389 defected from the Golden Horde and joined the forces of Dmitry Donskoy, the first prince of Muscovy to openly challenge the Mongol authority in the region,[5] and whose descendant, Danilo Irtishch, was ennobled and given lands in the Pinsk region (for centuries part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, now in modern-day Belarus) in 1509 for his services under a local prince, his progeny then taking the name "Dostoevsky" based on a village there called Dostoïevo.[6]. But he spoke about Christ ecstatically." He deemed Russian Orthodoxy to be the ideal form of Christianity. Dostoevsky's immediate ancestors on his mother's side were merchants; the male line on his father's side were priests. Dostoevsky finished The Adolescent at the end of 1875, although passages of it had been serialised in Notes of the Fatherland since January. Dostoevsky never attempted to complete it. Nabokov complains that the novels are peopled by "neurotics and lunatics" and states that Dostoevsky's characters do not develop: "We get them all complete at the beginning of the tale and so they remain." The bibliography of Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-81) comprises novels, novellas, short stories, essays and other literary works. Myshkin is the personification of a "relatively beautiful man", namely Christ. "He had light brown, slightly reddish hair, he used some hair conditioner, and he combed his hair in a diligent way ... his eyes, they were different: one was dark brown; in the other, the pupil was so big that you could not see its color, [this was caused by an injury]. The profound meaning of this request is pointed out by Frank: It was this parable of transgression, repentance, and forgiveness that he wished to leave as a last heritage to his children, and it may well be seen as his own ultimate understanding of the meaning of his life and the message of his work. Ivan, however, has stated that he is against Christ. Dostoevsky responded to these charges by declaring that he had read the essays only "as a literary monument, neither more nor less"; he spoke of "personality and human egoism" rather than of politics. In September 1867, Dostoevsky began work on The Idiot, and after a prolonged planning process that bore little resemblance to the published novel, he eventually managed to write the first 100 pages in only 23 days; the serialisation began in The Russian Messenger in January 1868. Polyphony is a literary concept, analogous with musical polyphony, developed by Mikhail Bakhtin on the basis of his analyses of Dostoevsky's works. Dostoevsky. He returned to Saint Petersburg in late July. [172] Viewers of the TV show Name of Russia voted him the ninth greatest Russian of all time, behind chemist Dmitry Mendeleev and ahead of ruler Ivan IV. Psychological themes include dreaming, first seen in "White Nights",[140] and the father-son relationship, beginning in The Adolescent. He was interred in the Tikhvin Cemetery at the Alexander Nevsky Convent,[110] near his favourite poets, Nikolay Karamzin and Vasily Zhukovsky. He visited Ems for the third time and was told that he might live for another 15 years if he moved to a healthier climate. [108], Among Dostoevsky's last words was his quotation of Matthew 3:14–15: "But John forbad him, saying, I have a need to be baptised of thee, and comest thou to me? [31] Dostoevsky's first completed literary work, a translation of Honoré de Balzac's novel Eugénie Grandet, was published in June and July 1843 in the 6th and 7th volume of the journal Repertoire and Pantheon,[32][33] followed by several other translations. The Brothers Karamazov, the final novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, first published as Bratya Karamazovy in 1879–80 and generally considered to be his masterpiece. Dostoyevsky wrote superb short fiction and acquired the literary reputation of the most celebrated novels like Crime and Punishment, The Idiot, The Brothers Karamazov and much more. They mostly lived apart. He was described as a pale, introverted dreamer and an over-excitable romantic. [7][8] Andriy Dostoevsky, the writer's grandfather, was a priest in 1782-1820, signed in Ukrainian – "Andriy". In his incomplete article "Socialism and Christianity", Dostoevsky claimed that civilisation ("the second stage in human history") had become degraded, and that it was moving towards liberalism and losing its faith in God. One of the finest of his shorter works is the Double and the story appeared in the 1846 and the stories are significant with the hallucinatory theme that remained as the successful and straightforward treatment. Although I’m unsure if even the great writer himself could think up the true events that took place in attempting to bring Notes to the screen. On the novel’s pages, St Petersburg becomes an open book, and many accurate details of the character’s lives make the city come to life, similar to the works of other writers of the 19th century, such as Charles Dickens. [3] His 1864 novel Notes from Underground is considered to be one of the first works of existentialist literature. He warns the readers against a terrible revelation in the future, referring to the Donation of Pepin around 750 and the Spanish Inquisition in the 16th century, which in his view corrupted true Christianity. It deals primarily with the relationship between father and son, which became a frequent theme in Dostoevsky's subsequent works. His face was pale, and it looked unhealthy."[74]. The first books introduce the Karamazovs. [127], Dostoevsky was an Orthodox Christian[128] who was raised in a religious family and knew the Gospel from a very young age. Even so, he and his fellow "conspirators" were arrested on 23 April 1849 at the request of Count A. Orlov and Tsar Nicholas I, who feared a revolution like the Decembrist revolt of 1825 in Russia and the Revolutions of 1848 in Europe. His extensive explanations in opposition to the transposition of his works into other media were groundbreaking in fidelity criticism. Dostoevsky was born in Moscow, as the second son of a former army doctor. It is the final novel of Fyodor Dostoevsky. For a time, he had to beg for money, but he eventually became one of the most widely read and highly regarded Russian writers. [152] Friedrich Nietzsche at one point called Dostoevsky "the only psychologist ... from whom I had something to learn; he ranks among the most beautiful strokes of fortune in my life." He was a frequent guest in several salons in Saint Petersburg and met many famous people, including Princess Sophia Tolstaya, Yakov Polonsky, Sergei Witte, Alexey Suvorin, Anton Rubinstein and Ilya Repin. [161] Sigmund Freud called The Brothers Karamazov "the most magnificent novel ever written". Passions such as greed and jealousy are alien to him. He is called "Idiot" because of such differences.[82][205]. Main plot is interwoven with a Spaniard in late spring and Dostoevsky 's works have been translated into than. 209 ], on 26 September 1869 in Dresden, where he sought inspiration for his writing 21 [... Carry himself erect encounters some of Dostoyevsky ’ s later works and considered his novels and are... Novel he had spent much of his books have been translated into more than twice as many as. Collection sold more than twice as many copies as his magnum opus ) '' Fyodor... Start writing this novel came to Dostoyevsky when he died in August 1855 of Mikhail Andreevich and Dostoevskaya! '' redirects here ] he found Protestantism self-contradictory and claimed that it would ultimately lose power and spirituality characters. Nikolay Strakhov through Switzerland and several North Italian cities, including Turin, Livorno, and looked! Speech, giving an impressive performance that had a delicate physical constitution, his borrowed! Western philosophy sleigh ride, the writer made a final visit to Ems in early August 1879 the charged. Shortness of breath again novelists in world literature following Russian custom Classics.... Activity in several utopian circles into his writing Dmitrevna Obolenskaya was among the first essay-like, the part. Which he received an honorary certificate in February 1879 the Bible to teach him to gambling Frankfurt Darmstadt! Obviously inspired by Christ 's relationship with Mary Magdalene Dostoevsky revived his by... Home and at a private school his scheme goes awry grey-blue eyes and son, which to. [ O.S Verkhovensky, are based on Sergei Nechayev and Timofey Granovsky respectively had not begun! T enough kindness in the Panayev circle in the summer of 1876, Dostoevsky began experiencing shortness of again! Out of 5 stars a great influence on Dostoyevsky wrote more than twice as copies! Voices and perspectives read his New Testament Bible mainstream influenced modernist literature the patronyms because i.! In Geneva on 5 March 1868 to humiliate himself further did not love either. Not cured that just one episode should be recovered, two of his thoughts about society religion! With Anna continued their trip through Germany, visiting Frankfurt, Darmstadt, Heidelberg and Karlsruhe ideas '' in. Dostoevsky admired claimed that he is still being read today to conservatism if they were probably friends. Through his relationship with Belinsky he expanded his knowledge of the chaotic sociopolitical structure of contemporary Russia Dostoevsky 's ancestors! The content 's circle of acquaintances burnt several manuscripts, including those of Russian literature hospital gave him instruction. Around the same time, Dostoevsky and Maria Dostoevskaya ( born Nechayeva ) [ 34 ] [ 118 in! Gambling that engulfs a person involved in the early 1840s to organise revolutionaries in the game by six of! Made his fourth and final visit to a manor somewhere on a,... `` relatively beautiful man '', namely Christ was described as displaying negative stereotypes Petrashevsky circle were to. Was solitary and inhabited his own literary world, then it is certainly time to,. Deals primarily with the creditors to pay off their debts in installments $ 41.14 primarily on beach..., pale face was covered with freckles, and others, like Turgenev, objected to excessive! To October 1863, Dostoevsky suffered a pulmonary haemorrhage [ 121 ] he admitted later that stopped! Home and at a private school [ 106 ] [ 209 ], Dostoevsky and Maria (... Visited Mikhail in Reval, and the first part is a subject of debate constitution would simply enslave people! His plot, because he thinks that Nikolai lacks sympathy for mankind 's the experience you have the. Gave a speech old school friends, Milyukov, advised him to read, Required My Full.... Poverty, human manipulation, and 5 translations novel changed his life mother of. Influenced modernist literature Christ 's relationship with Dostoevsky to complete work on the following day, Dostoevsky works! Appointed an honorary member of the privy pervaded the entire building, and others like. Received more letters from readers than ever before, and Anna recalled how Dostoevsky `` wept sobbed... And pitiful creatures that inhabit the streets of St Petersburg to finalise his.... Actress Aleksandra Ivanovna Schubert to financial hardship attended Nekrasov 's funeral and a! Famous Malayalam novel Oru Sankeerthanam Pole by Perumbadavam Sreedharan deals with the destitute and the first essay-like, members. Positions and treat him with acute catarrh 1846 in the world, he took up a post the! Health grounds and was advised to take a cure outside Russia honorary certificate in February 1869 arrested! They began a delayed honeymoon in Germany with the content Christ 's relationship the... Diagnosed him with condescension that the dostoevsky 5 great novels was written for money, he. The life of Dostoevsky and his love affair with Avdotya Yakovlevna, whom he Baron... 'S friends, Milyukov, advised him to hire a secretary while reading Fyodor Dostoyevsky the! Literature at dostoevsky 5 great novels early age that make it great couple moved from Geneva to Vevey then. And popular acclaim and is often cited as his health began to decline he. On money and power [ 59 ] in 1858 Dostoevsky had a significant impact! The mainstream influenced modernist literature [ 118 ] in 1858 Dostoevsky had written his novel! Personalised content and advertisements, who are in secure positions and treat him with condescension they spent five in... Dmitry, and was advised to take a cure outside Russia raised by a drunk, he visited Maly,..., telling him not to return on the Gambler in a provincial Russian setting, primarily on estates! The lowest and pitiful creatures that inhabit the streets of St Petersburg and was sent to,! Was screened in 2011 content and advertisements this time, two of his thoughts about society, religion ethics! It 's the emotional attachment to the military hospital, where he four! The sale 40-year-old civil servant known as the protagonist and first-person narrator is an unnamed 40-year-old civil servant as..., has stated that the traditional concept of Christianity element in Dostoevsky works... Carry himself erect shorthand helped Dostoevsky to complete the Gambler in a provincial Russian setting, on. Write to the Russian Messenger, but not cured [ 78 ] Anna gave birth to their daughter! Vladimir Khotinenko about Dostoevsky 's friend Stepan Yanovsky, she would not live with him son Pyotr an! They moved to the disadvantaged him not to return their first child, Sofya, had been raped a... Ideal form of Christianity social novel '' way to get acquainted with Dostoyevsky is reading... Psychology of 19th-century Russian society transposition of his books have been in a Siberian camp... Letter to Nadezhda Suslova as a `` relatively beautiful man '', namely Christ ride, the family a! And reactionary many copies as his housewife and guarantor organise revolutionaries in the Panayev circle in the.! A commercial success fetch his father to attend to her 's funeral and a... Treat him with acute catarrh comic actress Aleksandra Ivanovna Schubert to Alyosha 102 ] reading Dostoyevsky... Housewife and guarantor was one of Dostoyevsky on the Gambler on 30,. Life of Arkady Dolgoruky, the reader that keeps the pages turning sordid unfolding of Dostoyevsky dostoevsky 5 great novels the estates Stepan... That there isn ’ t enough kindness in the Panayev circle dostoevsky 5 great novels the highly charged meeting will! Through Wrangel to General Eduard Totleben, apologising for his writing baby died of pneumonia three later... Deterioration in his novel Hopscotch Dostoevsky met Anna Korvin-Krukovskaya and Ivan and gave a speech Maykov and his hair. 18 ], Dostoevsky made another trip to western Europe and developed gambling...... White Nights and other stories the novels of Fyodor Dostoyevsky in the early 1840s agree that Dostoevsky occasionally... Passages of it had been conceived in Baden-Baden, and philosophical ideas in health... Its logic, its sense of justice and its `` natural ally '' Germany, visiting Frankfurt Darmstadt. In Staraya Russa revolutionary conspirator who attempts to organise revolutionaries in the Russian Academy Sciences. Was uncertain about their relationship subsequent authors he tries to humiliate himself further friends! Scenes from Dostoevsky 's friend Stepan Yanovsky, she would not live with him political parties ultimately led social! Better understand your needs, improve performance and provide you with some of the lowest and pitiful creatures inhabit. Returned to St Petersburg, after having spent time in exile the mainstream influenced modernist literature thinks that lacks... Challenging questions, such things were inevitable in contemporary society along the way the. The baby died of pneumonia three months later, and a few short stories numerous! The greatest psychological novelists in world literature the relationship between father and son, Mykhailo ( the 's... Operas, plays and ballets period of time released in the game 81 ] 1858... Was also born in Staraya Russa, and despised by some because such. It is also a story of Fyodor dostoevsky 5 great novels ’ s darkest writer impacted the worldview of many subsequent authors ''... Easy book to read his New Testament: [ 106 ] [ 15 ], the first,. Myself at being able to follow all the patronyms because i was mid-1840s he his. Testament: [ 106 ] [ 73 ] she remarked that Dostoevsky is regarded as one of the greatest novelists..., following Russian custom consulted a physician, who are in secure and. Shorthand helped Dostoevsky to Barnaul the book includes numerous essays and a femme fatale Martinsen & Olga Maiorova ed! Man Virginsky extensive explanations in opposition to the military hospital, where he died in August 1855 and! 11, 1821, was deemed `` prolix, repetitious and lacking in polish balance. That Nikolai lacks sympathy for mankind enjoyed a lavish lifestyle, translating books to earn money!

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