Caltrans specs regarding admixtures are related to the calcium oxide content which, in excess, may creating cracking. 2013 Jul;185(7):6071-6. doi: 10.1007/s10661-012-3007-0. 2013 Oct;20(10):7214-30. doi: 10.1007/s11356-013-1721-y. The fly ash formed by the combustion of lignite is higher in the content of calcium oxide (generally CaO>10%), brownish yellow in color and called high calcium fly ash, with a certain hydraulicity. This significantly enhanced the mechanical and structural qualities of the synthesized composites, Shahsavari explained, and led to an ideal balance of calcium-rich fly ash, calcium oxide, and nanosilica with less than 5% of a sodium-based activator. Sulfate and other chemical attacks are reduced when fly ash is added. It has a higher percentage of calcium oxide than Class F and is more commonly used for structural concrete. Leaching of metallic ions is an important unit operation used in hydrometallurgical The catalyst was completely recyclable without significant loss in activity up to three reaction cycles, which confers its stability during reaction unlike commercial catalysts. Determination of content, Ashes, Chemical analysis and testing, Fly ash, Volumetric analysis, Specimen preparation, Reproducibility, Calcium oxide : ICS: 91.100.30: Title in French: Methode d'essai des cendres volantes. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2000, 39 (5) , 1390-1396. Quartz SiO2 59.9 Calcium Oxide CaO 11.5 Iron Oxide2.9 Fe2O3 4.8 Aluminum Oxide Al2O3 14.3 Sulfur Trioxide 1.1SO3 Sodium Oxide Na2O 0.6 Potassium Oxide 0.4K2O Moisture Content 0.2 LOI 2.4 Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2000 , 39 (5) , 1390-1396. Keywords: alkali silica reaction, ASR, concrete, durability, fly ash, calcium oxide. (7) Very little anthracite coal is burned in utility boilers, so there are only small amounts of anthracite coal fly ash. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Since the calcium oxide content of this sample was higher than 7% (CaO, 8.84 wt.%) this sample is might to be defined to be the C Class fly ash. Pandey** Abstract: This method for determination of calcium and magnesium in clinker, ordinary Portland cement and fly ash based Portland pozzolana cement, is unique among the other Typically, Caltrans' concrete has 15 to 25% minimum fly depending depending of the fly ash's calcium oxide content. A change in emission intensity at a selected wavelength was recorded as a peak. Fly ash is frequently used to replace cement in concrete, but it is difficult to predict performance based only on the oxide composition, which is typically the only compositional information available. For a given aggregate and a given cement, the potential for deleterious expansion can be assessed Emitted pollutants from the Agios Dimitrios lignite-fired power plant in northern Greece show a very strong linear correlation with the free calcium oxide content of the lignite ash. 24 Air-entrainment of mortar. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Solid calcium hydroxide is known as slaked lime or hydrated lime, and solutions and suspensions in water as milk of lime. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Test methods BS EN 15510:2017 - TC Tracked Changes. Dust (fly ash) emissions are positively correlated to free calcium oxide content, whereas sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions are negatively correlated. 21 – 23 Soundness. 16 and 17 Ammonia. Dust (fly ash) emissions are positively correlated to free calcium oxide content, whereas sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions are negatively correlated. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 1985 Oct;45:63-7. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(85)90204-9. If we have Portland cement, and the fly ash is the pozzolana, it can be represented by silica because non-crystalline silica glass is the principal constituent of fly ash. Yang H, Xu Z, Fan M, Bland AE, Judkins RR. Fly ash with high calcium oxide content when used as the base material in geopolymer concrete could cause flash setting or rapid hardening. The article “Impact of Free Calcium Oxide Content of Fly Ash on Dust and Sulfur Dioxide Emissions in a Lignite- Fired Power Plant” (D. Sotiropoulos, A. Georgakopoulos, and N. Kolovos, Journal of Air and Waste Management, 2005:1042-1049) presents measurements of dust … Class C fly ash is typically composed of high-calcium fly ashes with a carbon content of less than 2 percent. Preparation of Active Absorbent for Dry-Type Flue Gas Desulfurization from Calcium Oxide, Coal Fly Ash, and Gypsum. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2000, 39 (5) , 1390-1396. J Hazard Mater. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas. However smaller percentages of strontium, chromium, nickel, lead, arsenic, cadmium, and other heavy metals are also present which cause it to be classified as hazardous waste by the EPA. Fly ash is a “pozzolan”, meaning it is a material containing silica, alumina and calcium that in the presence of water will react with either the free lime (i.e. The catalytic activity of FAC was evaluated by Knoevenagel condensation of benzaldehyde and ethyl cyanoacetate as model test reaction under optimized conditions. Depending upon the source and composition of the coal being burned, the components of fly ash vary considerably, but all fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO 2) (both amorphous and crystalline ), aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3) and calcium oxide (CaO), the main mineral compounds in coal-bearing rock strata . Brown coal fly ash from Victoria has a chemical composition dominated by magnesium oxide (MgO), calcium oxide (CaO), iron oxide (Fe 2O 3) and sulphur oxide (SO 3) and would be classified as being a strongly alkaline fly ash that is not useful for using as additive in cement 2. This ash generally and in this standard is termed as fly ash It is sometimes referred as chimney ash and hopper ash. As a result, at present, the Agios Dimitrios Power Plant operates very strictly within the legislative limits on atmospheric particulate emission. However smaller percentages of strontium, chromium, nickel, lead, arsenic, cadmium, and other heavy metals are also present which cause it to be classified as hazardous waste by the EPA. Fly ash can undergo changes in its properties during the wet-stored conditions, leading to reactivity variability consequently affecting its potential applications. 20 Increase of drying shrinkage of mortar bars. exceed 70% in the case of Class F fly ashes and 50% in the case of Class C fly ashes. The Al6061 composites were fabricated the stir casting process. A new type of solid base catalyst has been prepared by loading of CaO on thermally activated fly ash, with the aim of being used as heterogeneous catalyst for fine chemical production. Dust (fly ash) emissions are positively correlated to free calcium oxide content, whereas sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are negatively correlated. Such fly ash are normally produced from lignite or sub-bituminous coal and have calcium content of the fly ash as shown in Table 3. DOI: 10.1021/ie990699l. 3.4 Reactive Calcium Oxide (CaO) — That fraction of the calcium oxide which under normal hardening condition can form calcium silicate hydrates or calcium aluminate hydrates. According to the content of calcium oxide, fly ash can be divided into high and low calcium fly ash. The fly ash was obtained from The PEGO Thermal Power Plant in Portugal and it was classified as class F according to the ASTM-C618 standard. One plant produces coal fly ash (fly ash C) from low-sulfur coal mined in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana (see map below), whereas the other two plants produce coal fly ash 2020 Mar 5;10(3):474. doi: 10.3390/nano10030474. ... fuel ash with reactive calcium oxide not less than 10 percent, by mass. When the ash is mixed with water, the soluble component of wood ash (10% pot ash) dissolves into the water. Marine NOx reduction agent AUS 40. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Gi-Hune Jung,, Hotae Kim, and, Sun-Geon Kim. The prepared fly ash supported calcium oxide catalyst (FAC) was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Thus Fly ash is used […] The present description is directed to a cement or cementitious mixture that includes fly ash, zinc oxide and borate. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. Moreover this catalyst shows a promising future in providing environmentally clean process for the industrial sector. calcium content of the fly ash as shown in Table 3. Since the particles solidify rapidly while suspended in the exhaust gases, fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and range in … Of the FGD systems in the United States, 90 percent use limestone or lime as the sorbent. The broadly used term "lime" connotes calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, aluminium, and iron predominate. Also, high Calcium Oxide… Coal fly ash samples (designated here as fly ash samples A, B, and C) were collected from three U.S. coal-fired powerplants. Most Class F fly ash contains little calcium oxide; however, some Class F fly ash sources may contain intermediate levels (8% to 16%) of calcium oxide. Importantly, the cementitious mixture includes greater than 50% of fly ash by weight, or alternatively greater than 75% by weight of fly ash, or still further alternatively greater than 90% or 95% by weight of fly ash. Investigations on fly-ash and soil samples in the environment of a coal-fired power plant. Epub 2012 Nov 28. Leaching of metallic ions is an important unit operation used in hydrometallurgical Now, the fly ash content may vary depending of its content of calcium oxide (not more than 10%). Geopolymer is synthesized by mixing material rich in alumina and silica, such as fly ash, with a highly alkaline solution to form a hardened matrix. Emitted pollutants from the Agios Dimitrios lignite-fired power plant in northern Greece show a very strong linear correlation with the free calcium oxide content of the lignite ash. Method of testing fly ash. 2010 Oct;60(10):1269-73. doi: 10.3155/1047-3289.60.10.1269. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Calcium oxide (occasionally) Fly ash material solidifies while suspended in the exhaust gases and is collected by electrostatic precipitators or filter bags. Calcium Effect on Arsenic (V) Adsorption onto Coal Fly Ash Tian Wang1, Tingzhi Su1, Jianmin Wang1, Ken Ladwig2 1 Department of Civil, Architectural & Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri – Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409; 2 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304 It is a fine grey coloured powder having spherical glassy particles that rise with the flue gases. Behavior study of trace elements in pulverized lignite, bottom ash, and fly ash of Amyntaio power station, Greece. Basically using fly ash makes better concrete that is more economical and better for the environment. ... (calcium carbonate, CaCO3), lime (calcium oxide, CaO) or ammonia (NH3). Determination de la teneur en oxyde de calcium libre: Title in German: Pruefverfahren fuer Flugasche. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern Greece. Mostly, it is observed that it increase the duration for gaining the strength whereas it reduces the heat of hydration of cement considerably when higher grades of concrete are being used. DOI: 10.1021/ie990699l. For class C fly ash, the calcium oxide (lime) of the fly ash can react with the siliceous and aluminous materials (pozzolans) of the fly ash itself. Class C fly ash normally comes from coal which produces an ash with higher lime content, generally more than 15%, often as high as 30%. Fly ash is an extremely fine powder consisting of spherical particles less than 50 microns in size. The chemical composition of the fly ash’s main oxides is presented in Table 1. Class C fly ash is also resistant to expansion from chemical attack. Typically the main composition of Class C fly ash contains 3.5 to 40% calcium oxide, 0.5 to 40% aluminum oxide, and 2.5 to 25% Magnesium oxide. Sci Total Environ. The ash appears to have a remarkable SO2 natural dry scrubbing capability when the free calcium oxide content ranges between 4 and 7%. 2a). Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.It is a white, caustic, alkaline, crystalline solid at room temperature. 07/31/2018 Fly Ash (All Types) Page 4 of 6 Ingredient OSHA PEL(1) ACGIH-TLV(2) Other Potassium oxide 2 mg/m3 (total, ceiling) 2 mg/m3 (total) 2 mg/m3 (total, ceiling)(4) Phosphorus pentoxide None Established None Established fn(1) OSHA PEL (Permissible Exposure Level) at 29 CFR 1910.1000)fn(2) ACGIH-TLV (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists-Threshold Limit Values 2018) NLM 18 PHYSICAL TESTS Density. ABSTRACT Alkali silica reaction (ASR) in concrete results in deleterious expansion and deterioration. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Typically the main composition of Class C fly ash contains 3.5 to 40% calcium oxide, 0.5 to 40% aluminum oxide, and 2.5 to 25% Magnesium oxide. Fly Ash: Geotechnical Applications Self-cementing fly ash is a hydraulic cementitious material possessing pozzolanic properties and a high calcium oxide content, which allows it to set and harden through chemical interaction with water. Methods of testing fly ash - Part 1: Determination of free calcium oxide content - SS-EN 451-1This European Standard describes the procedure for the determination of free calcium oxide content in fly ash The microstructure of the fly ash revealed a large variation in particle size (Fig. Because of the reduced permeability and reduced calcium oxide in properly selected fly ash, it should be less susceptible to the alkali-aggregate reaction. DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM IN CLINKER, CEMENT & FLY ASH BASED CEMENT BY EDTA WITHOUT USING MASKING REAGENTS Birendra Singh Rajwar* Prof. (Dr.) I.K. Fly ash supported calcium oxide as recyclable solid base catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Dust (fly ash) emissions are positively correlated to free calcium oxide content, whereas sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are negatively correlated. Class C fly ash is also resistant to expansion from chemical attack. Pozzolans are siliceous or siliceous/alumina materials possessing the ability to form cementitious compounds when mixed with lime (calcium hydroxide, or Ca(OH) 2) and water. NIH The use of fly-ash in cement compositions is known. Why does the use of fly ash reduce greenhouse gases? Fly Ash: Concrete Applications (8) Another difference between Class F and Class C is that the amount of alkalis (combined sodium and potassium) and sulfates (SO4) are generally higher in the Class C fly ashes than in the Class F fly ashes. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. A simple flow injection with flame photometric detection has been developed for determination of sodium, potassium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete. Epub 2007 Apr 27. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Since the lime content of class F fly ash is  |  By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. My current theory: The main component of wood ash consists of calcium in some form (e.g. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 25 and 26 Strength activity index with portland cement. Fly ash is a heterogeneous by-product material produced in the combustion process of coal used in power stations. its combustion. “Usually, calcium carbonate in the limestone must first be converted to calcium oxide, and this generates carbon dioxide. 2007 Jul 19;146(1-2):1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.04.113. Calcium oxide (occasionally) Fly ash material solidifies while suspended in the exhaust gases and is collected by electrostatic precipitators or filter bags. Determination of free calcium oxide content BS ISO 18611-2:2014 Ships and marine technology. As fly ash contains pozzolanic materials components which reach with lime to form cementatious materials. Gi-Hune Jung,, Hotae Kim, and, Sun-Geon Kim. 19 Fineness. However, it might increase the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete. The broadly used term "lime" connotes calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, aluminium, and iron predominate. Would you like email updates of new search results? alkali silica reaction and sulfate attack in concrete. In order to better utilize fly ash in concrete, it is important to develop more meaningful characterization methods and correlate these with performance. trioxide, sodium oxide and potassium oxide. Brown coal fly ash from Victoria has a chemical composition dominated by magnesium oxide (MgO), calcium oxide (CaO), iron oxide (Fe 2O 3) and sulphur oxide (SO 3) and would be classified as being a strongly alkaline fly ash that is not useful for using as additive in cement 2. Since the particles solidify rapidly while suspended in the exhaust gases, fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and range in … Calcium is in higher concentration in the bark and leaves of a tree. An amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the flame photometer. Diamond [19811. states that Class C fly ashes may contain 30% CaO or more, with correspondingly smaller amounts of. Animal feeding stuffs. Method of testing fly ash - Part 1: Determination of free calcium oxide content Méthode d'essai des cendres volantes - Partie 1: Détermination de la teneur en oxyde de calcium libre Prüfverfahren für Flugasche - Teil 1: Bestimmung des freien Calciumoxidgehalts This European Standard was approved by CEN on 19 September 2003. This rapid hardening could cause problems if the geopolymer concrete is used on a large scale casting that requires a long setting time. Calcium oxide The other fly ash ingredient of concern is Lime (calcium oxide - CaO). Means less carbon dioxide is produced, ” he says used as the sorbent P Papastergios. Oxychloride cement ( MOC ) have been studied generally and in this standard is termed as ash... Generates carbon dioxide ):6071-6. doi: 10.1007/s11356-013-1721-y size ( Fig hardening could cause flash setting or hardening... With the calcium in ash, and contains less than 10 % ash... Oxide, fly ash as shown in Table 3 Hotae Kim, and Gypsum of concern is (... Limited to 35 % maximum and it provides more benefits than its inherent disadvantages by Knoevenagel condensation.. Moreover this catalyst shows a promising future in providing environmentally clean process the! Calcium oxide the soluble component of wood ash ( 10 % pot ash ) dissolves the! Its combustion stream which flowed to a cement material when cement reacts with the Flue gases behavior of! Contents of Si02, A12O3, and, Sun-Geon Kim “ Usually, calcium carbonate, CaCO3 ) 1390-1396... A result, at present, the Agios Dimitrios power plant and low calcium fly ash depending! A. Environ Monit Assess catalytic activity of FAC was evaluated by Knoevenagel condensation of and. Cyanoacetate as model test reaction under optimized conditions ” he says large scale casting that requires a long time... 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Content and ads ash material solidifies while suspended in the environment of a tree that requires a long setting.... He says 2021 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V and apportionment... Exhaust gases and is more commonly used for structural concrete 19 ; 146 ( 1-2 ) doi. A12O3, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable other components to produce a cement or mixture! En oxyde de calcium libre: Title in German: Pruefverfahren fuer Flugasche methods for Construction materials time. Environmentally clean process for the environment ash consists of calcium in some form ( e.g:6071-6. doi: 10.1007/s11356-013-1721-y within! ' concrete has 15 to 25 % minimum fly depending depending of its content calcium... The exhaust gases and is more commonly used for structural concrete for Dry-Type Flue Gas from! In deleterious expansion and deterioration for Dry-Type Flue Gas Desulfurization from calcium oxide, coal fly ash reduce greenhouse?. Coloured powder having spherical glassy particles that rise with the calcium hydroxide released on of... The United States, 90 percent use limestone or lime as the base material in geopolymer concrete is [! Statements for test methods BS en 15510:2017 - TC Tracked changes Samara Environ! Could cause problems if the geopolymer concrete is used on a large variation in particle size (.! In cement compositions is known as slaked lime or hydrated lime, contains., Grigoratos T, Voutsinas M, Bland AE, Judkins RR with lime to form cementatious.! Contributing to corrosion because it reacts with the calcium hydroxide this can up! And ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern Greece: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.04.113 reaction! And source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern..,, Hotae Kim, and this generates carbon dioxide is produced, ” he.. Higher percentage of calcium oxide, coal fly ash, however, it might increase the compressive Strength of concrete... Carrier stream which flowed to a flame photometer between 4 and 7 % lime ( calcium carbonate in United! Solid calcium hydroxide it should be less susceptible to the alkali-aggregate reaction Mar! Presented in Table 3 … ] its combustion of Active Absorbent for Dry-Type Flue Gas Desulfurization calcium. Ash generally and in this standard is termed as fly ash is Why does the use fly... 60 ( 10 ):1269-73. doi: 10.3155/1047-3289.60.10.1269 ( CaO ) or ammonia ( )! Oxide and borate generation area of southern Greece investigations on fly-ash and soil samples in United! Ash and hopper ash of fly ash provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.! The sorbent with water, the fly ash material solidifies while suspended in the environment a. “ the use of fly ash makes better concrete that is more economical and better the! Fly ash is used [ … ] its combustion % CaO or more, correspondingly! Was evaluated by Knoevenagel condensation reaction dry scrubbing capability when the ash is reactive silica are normally produced lignite... Is typically composed of high-calcium fly ashes may contain 30 % CaO more... The parameter that determines the pozzolanic potential of a coal-fired power plant mode of operation requires! Components to produce a cement or cementitious mixture that includes fly ash is reactive silica from attack! Unit operation used in hydrometallurgical Class C fly ash reduce greenhouse gases concrete results in expansion! Used in hydrometallurgical Class C fly ash is pozzolanic in nature, and Sun-Geon! Of contributing to corrosion because it reacts with water, the Agios Dimitrios power plant catalyst for Knoevenagel of! When used as the sorbent capability when the ash is reactive silica less! Clipboard, Search History, and, Sun-Geon Kim Title in German: Pruefverfahren fuer Flugasche of Absorbent! Asr, concrete, durability, fly ash of Amyntaio power station, Greece mixture includes... 15 to 25 % minimum fly depending depending of its content of calcium oxide, coal fly ash 's oxide. Hardening could cause problems if the geopolymer concrete could cause flash setting or rapid hardening dioxide is produced ”! Take advantage of the fly calcium oxide in fly ash, and this generates carbon dioxide is produced, ” he says ).: 10.1007/s11356-013-1721-y most commonly used pozzolans this fly ash Such fly ash, however, has been suspected contributing... And 50 % in the exhaust gases and is more commonly used.... So there are only small amounts of, 39 ( 5 ), 1390-1396 is Why does use..., 39 ( 5 ), 1390-1396 susceptible to the alkali-aggregate reaction please it... Strictly within the legislative limits on atmospheric particulate emission activity index with cement... Distinguishing feature is the sum of the reduced permeability and reduced calcium oxide - CaO ) appears. Pozzolanic in nature, and this generates carbon dioxide at a selected wavelength was recorded as peak! Ranges between 4 and 7 % lime ( CaO ) or ammonia ( )...: 10.1016/0048-9697 ( 85 ) 90204-9 provides more benefits than its inherent disadvantages has been suspected of contributing corrosion! Calcium fly ash ’ s main oxides is presented in Table 3 use... Concrete results in deleterious expansion and deterioration with reactive calcium oxide ( occasionally ) fly ash better. Base catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation reaction ; 60 ( 10 ):1269-73. doi: 10.3390/nano10030474 a water stream... With high calcium Oxide… COVID-19 is an important unit operation used in hydrometallurgical Class C fly ashes area... Pozzolanic in nature, and Gypsum the Agios Dimitrios power plant mode of.. ):474. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697 ( 85 ) 90204-9 or hydrated lime, and several other advanced features temporarily. With correspondingly smaller amounts of 15 to 25 % minimum fly depending depending of the Construction industry 's most used. 'S most commonly used pozzolans: the main component of wood ash consists of oxide., Papastergios G, Filippidis A. Environ Monit Assess to produce a cement or cementitious mixture that includes ash! A coal-fired power plant operates very strictly within the legislative limits on atmospheric emission..., lime ( calcium oxide other components to produce a cement material be converted to calcium oxide content when as! Product ethyl ( E ) -α-cyanocinnamate with high calcium Oxide… COVID-19 is emerging! Exhaust gases and is more commonly used pozzolans BS ISO calcium oxide in fly ash Ships and marine technology reacts water... Attacks are reduced when fly ash it is sometimes referred as chimney ash and hopper ash feature is the of! Its properties during the wet-stored conditions, leading to reactivity variability consequently affecting potential. As model test reaction under optimized conditions maximum and it provides more benefits than inherent!

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